Francis Bacon’s Philosophy of Naturalism

The great English philosopher Francis Bacon introduced the belief that the universe’s workings may be understood by studying natural causes.

Francis Bacon Naturalism is the belief that we can acquire knowledge of how the world works by studying natural phenomena, not supernatural causes. Everything in the universe, from the existence of life to the motions of the planets and interactions between objects, is said to be governed and ruled by natural laws that humanity can investigate and understand. Naturalism is a belief that only natural phenomena exist, both in existence and in how knowledge is obtained.

In Novum Organum Scientiarum (1620,) Francis Bacon wrote:

The subtlety of nature is greater many times over than the subtlety of the senses and understanding; so that all those specious meditations, speculations, and glosses in which men indulge are quite from the purpose, only there is no one by to observe it.

Questions about how the universe came to be, and why events happen as they do, are likely as old as humanity itself. Thinkers such as Thales of Miletus proposed naturalistic solutions to such fundamental questions as early as the sixth century BCE. During the Renaissance (c. 1450-1600), naturalistic explanations became more prominent.

In 1620, English philosopher Francis Bacon (1561-1626) published Novum Organum Scientiarum (New Instrument of Science), in which he proposed a method of learning called inductive reasoning, where conclusions are drawn from observed data, instead of implied from presumed principles. Inductive reasoning, and the investigative method on which it is based, became essential to scientific inquiry.

The natural world is, for the most part, one that is knowable, measurable, quantifiable, and predictable. Naturalism presumes that the world as we see it is what it is. In contrast, belief in supernatural phenomena stands in the way of understanding the world; humanity cannot exert control over supernatural phenomena or influence them, and, even worse, it can provide no explanation or reason for their actions.

10 Commandments for Implementing Lean Business System

10 Commandments for Implementing Lean Business System

Regardless of the approach adopted, the role of the boss always turns out to be of paramount importance during the implementation of both technical and sociological aspects of lean business philosophy.

Having analyzed experience gained from cooperation with different enterprises, conversations with company bosses, the studies of subject matter literature and Internet sources, here’s are some thoughts on this role in ten points, dare we call them commandments:

  1. Have a clear vision and improvement goals for the whole organization. The process of gaining acceptance and preapproval for a proposal by evaluating first the idea and then the plan with management and stakeholders to get input, anticipate resistance, and align the proposed change with other perspectives and priorities in the organization.
  2. Be an engaged boss initiating changes. The boss’s involvement in training his immediate subordinates is also helpful in implementing Lean philosophy. Firstly, it gives an opportunity to get feedback on how the subordinates understand the subject matter and what their attitude to the announced changes is.
  3. Improve processes and the results will come consequently. Process improvement is not a one-day activity but it means continuous improvement. It is also important that the boss makes it clear to his employees Process improvement is not a one-day activity but it means continuous improvement. It is also important that the boss makes it clear to his employees.
  4. Create Obeya-like management centre. What actions have been planned to eliminate these reasons in order to improve the process? How these actions being implemented and what are the effects? How does it affect other processes and results?
  5. Determine indicators and bonuses that show one direction to the managers. The boss needs to be a coordinator of any actions undertaken in the company. He should efficiently lead his subordinates towards one common goal, since only in this way will he be able to ensure optimization of the company operations. Bosses, who evaluate their subordinates on the basis of various, often conflicting departmental objectives, make individual departments oriented on partial optimizations, which are seldom translated into optimization of the whole company operations.
  6. Motivate your people. Going to production floor in order to directly watch the process, talk to employees, confirm data and understand the situation (instead of relying exclusively on computerized data and information from other people). This practice shall be applied by both top management and lower-level management.
  7. Delegate the ownership of processes and places to your employees. Employees performing work, dealing with part of the process have a considerable knowledge of what is going on in this process in reality. Many of them are experienced workers, involved in the process for many years. It must be noticed that job rotation among management members is much higher than among lower level employees. Greater frequency of management members’ replacement accounts for the fact that lower-level employees, not managers, possess significant part of internal knowledge in the company.
  8. Engage everyone in problem solving and continuous improvement. Employees’ engagement in problem solving and continuous improvement results in many refinements which, at company level, bring about a speed of changes greater than that achieved by investment in new machines alone. In Toyota’s plants each employee makes on average from a dozen to several dozen improvement suggestions a year and in some plants over 90% of such suggestions are implemented. This results in productivity increment, fewer mistakes and greater safety at work stations.
  9. Teach your employees to achieve “the impossible.” The thing is to set a goal for people in the organization and make them move towards its achievement by showing proper behavior patterns. It will be a great success if the whole organization starts to think this way, not just a small group of enthusiasts who constantly want to change something (unfortunately, they are scarce in numbers). It can be reached by building good relations with employees. Feeling good in their work environment and having a sense of responsibility for their workstations, they are much eager and willing to use their creativity.
  10. Practice the routine of Gemba Walks every day. Going to production floor in order to directly watch the process, talk to employees, confirm data and understand the situation (instead of relying exclusively on computerized data and information from other people). This practice shall be applied by both top management and lower level management.

Freudian Slip

Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist

Sigmund Freud contended that everyday slips of the tongue provide insights into the workings of the mind. He called these slips Freudian Slips.

In 1890, in a letter to his friend, the physician Wilhelm Fliess, Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856- 1939) listed numerous examples that he had noticed of a curious tendency by people to utter errors in speech, due perhaps to inattention, incomplete data, or a strong prior-response pattern. Freud wrote, “My hypothesis is that this displacement … is not left to arbitrary psychical choice …”

In his book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Freud later referred to these errors in German as Fehlleistungen (faulty actions). He theorized that what we now call “Freudian slips” might represent the surfacing of an unconscious thought or wish; they were perhaps symptoms, he said, of the ongoing struggle between our conscious view of reality and those things we repress in our unconscious: they are verbal mistakes that reveal repressed beliefs. Freud’s English translator called them “parapraxes,” from the Greek meaning “another action.” Such slips of the tongue, or linguistic faux pas, were random expressions of unconscious processes in otherwise normal individuals.

For Freud, every little error contained potentiality, whether making a wrong turn while driving a car, dialing a wrong phone number, or misspelling an unfamiliar word. “In the same way that psychoanalysis makes use of dream interpretation,” he once said, “it also profits by the study of numerous little slips and mistakes which people make.” So is it possible that a Freudian slip is nothing more than a mistake or a lapse in concentration? After all, even Freud once told a student who asked him if there were an underlying psychological need to smoke a cigar: “Sometimes, a cigar … is just a cigar.”

If You Want to Inspire People, Build and Earn Their Trust

Interdependent relationships in which leadership and power are shared broadly

Most leaders agree that rigid hierarchy is dying because it runs on position power, instead of relationship power or people power.

Leaders are becoming increasingly divorced from formal authority because organizations are becoming decentralized webs instead of hierarchical entities and from power because the few people can coerce or control much of anything.

One reason for this major shift is a change in the way people are willing to be managed and led. Today’s employees want to have a voice and make a difference—they no longer want to follow blindly what the boss asks them to do.

We also see a new generation of leaders who operate on the relationship power and who believe that every individual counts and needs to be valued and treated as an unique person. We see more personal and professional relationships that are forged irrespective of positions. The public accomplishes now comes from the ability to develop trust and honesty, to build collaborative teams, and to empower every team member to participate fully.

For example, a generation ago, a father might have asked, “you’re lucky even to have a job, so stick with it and play by the rules.” Since no organization today provides guaranteed lifetime employment, doing what one is stored don’t pay off in complete security as it once did. Now with more options, people want to live by values and principles that they believe in, not just once but are imposed upon them.

The message we hear from leaders is this: if you want to inspire people, build and earn their trust, so they want to be with you and support you. But then people today, there is a desire to amount for something, to be one’s own person, to feel empowered, and to make a difference. Effectiveness and leadership can no longer be centered in positions within a rigid hierarchical structure, but must be centered in interdependent relationships in which leadership and power are shared broadly.

Warren Buffett’s Tips for Long-Term Investing

Warren Buffett's Tips for Long-Term Investing WSJ extracts four tips for long-term investing from Warren Buffett’s 2014 annual letter to Berkshire Hathaway’s shareholders. Here are excerpts.

  1. Own low-cost S&P 500 index funds: “Don’t try to pick winning stocks. Instead “own a cross section of businesses that in aggregate are bound to do well.” A low-cost S&P 500 index fund helps any investor do this well.”
  2. Ignore your or anyone else’s predictions about long or short-term price changes. “Focus instead on productivity of assets.”
  3. Ignore the macro environment and political environment: “Buffett notes that when he and his partner Charlie Munger buy stocks, they think of them as “small portion of businesses” and try to see the earnings power of these businesses over the next five years or more. “In the 54 years we have worked together, we have never forgone an attractive purchase because of the macro or political environment.””
  4. Make as few investments as possible: “Investors these days are pushed to be active and to buy low, sell high. Frequent buying and selling only cuts into long-term returns. Mr. Buffett continues: “Ignore the chatter, keep your costs minimal, and invest in stocks as you would a farm.””

Rockcut Saiva Temple (Cave I) in Badami, Bijapur

Dancing Nataraja at Rockcut Saiva Temple Badami in Bijapur

There are four caves or rock cut temples at Badami and they are numbered I to ‘I’ fo ‘IV’ easy identification. They are all carved side by side. The first cave is dedicated to Siva, second and third are caves for god Vishnu and the last one is for Jina. There is also a natural cave which is referred to as Buddhist cave. The existence of places of worship of Saiva, Vaishnava and Jaina religion side by side testifies to the religious tolerance of the people of the Chalukya period which is worthy of admiration.

This Saiva rock cut cave looks small from the outside. It has a long flight of steps from the ground level to go upto the level of the cave with a pavement in front. The facade of the cave consists of a moulding which has carved ganas in different moods on either side. Above the moulding are four square pillars with two pilasters at each end. The pillars have low relief carving. The temple itself consists of a portico, a mandapa and a garbhagriha. The rectangular portico has some beautiful sculptures, such as Nataraja, Harihara, Ardhanarisvara, etc. The dancing Nataraja has eighteen hands each of which has some weapon or the other. He is dancing in dvibhanga. To his left is Ganapati who is also dancing and by his side is a drummer playing on the mridanga. The whole composition is extremely vibrant. The other sculpture of Harihara is another elegant composition. Right portion of the main sculpture represents Siva as can be identified by battle axe, serpent, and Nandi with trisula. To the left is Vishnu who holds the sankha, with garuda at the bottom. Parvati and Lakshmi are standing on either side of the god. Thus it represents Siva-Vishnu aspect very effectively.

The eight feet tall Ardhanarisvara is another elegant sculpture with gods and goddesses on the top and dwarf ganas at the bottom. The right portion is symbolic of male while the left is female . The harmonious combination of this aspect is fully brought out by the artist very effectively. The bass-relief sculpture of flying gandharva couple within a circular medallion is a beautiful sculpture, expressing the divine smile. The pillars have sculptures of Narasimha, Garuda and Prahlada, Yogi worshipping linga, mithuna figures etc. The small garbhagriha has a linga on its pitha.

There is no inscription in this temple to fix its date. But taking the stylistic evidence and the inscription of Mangalesha in the third cave, it may be ascribed to sixth century AD.

How to Use Power Positively

How to Use Power Positively

Power is often a dirty word, as in “power corrupts.” Yet, without the power to make things happen, managers can’t build organizations.

Managers need to understand the dynamics of power in four arenas and harness and direct energies in ways that are not just effective and efficient, but also deeply satisfying and empowering of self and the others who lend their energy toward goals.

Power has two primary components: a vision—a goal to achieve—and energy—the impetus or force needed to bring the vision into reality. This offers an equation: Vision multiplied by energy produces the power to accomplish goals! However, opposing energies can vitiate even a great vision supported by enormous energy.

Here, then, is a more realistic equation for power:


Power = Vision
  • Energy/Resistance

    Applying this simple equation is not so simple. Once being powerful was a perquisite of managers. People did what their managers wanted them to do. Wages were provided in return for obedient labor.

    Today, managers need new ways to generate power and influence if they are to harness and focus the energy of their people into power sufficient for excellence and continued success.

    Finite and Infinite Perspectives

    I see two basic views of power:

    • The finite perspective says that power is scarce, limited, and finite—that there is not enough to go around, that someone will win, and someone must lose. This limited view of power limits the power we might accrue. A win/lose perspective of power actually creates resistance, as those who believe they will lose if you win, will fight aggressively and passively to turn the tables.
    • The infinite view sees power as abundant, unlimited, and infinite. In this view, power is accrued through partnering with and learning from others-including those who might resist. The quantity and quality of available power from this perspective is potentially infinite, facilitating great energy.

    Harnessing infinite power depends on mastering six principles:

    1. Focus your energy—focusing, releasing, and managing the energy of your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors to achieve your goals.
    2. Think systemically—seeing that every thing and every action exists within some system of other things and actions, and that every thing and action within a system impacts and is impacted by every other thing and action with that system.
    3. Learn from differences—using differences to accrue knowledge and skill, not to foster contention or conformity.
    4. Seek sound and current data—operating from accurate, up-to-date information rather than from opinion, interpretation, assumption, or speculation.
    5. Empower others—supporting self and others to identify and resolve their issues and discover their excellence.
    6. Use support systems—developing and using a diverse group of supporters who contribute to achieving. Support systems achieve their goals as they reach critical mass.
  • Process of Building a Personal Brand

    You already have a personal brand. What do people feel when you walk into the room? And what do you want them to feel? With successful branding, your key audiences think about you the way you want them to think.

    The branding process has four steps.

    Consider the corporate brand

    The more senior the executive, the closer the fit needs to be between corporate brand and personal brand. CEOs should consider themselves an extension or an embodiment of the corporate brand. What does your corporate brand stand for? How does your CEO’s brand fit within it? If the branding does not fit, the CEO’s tenure will likely be short. Successful branding does not mean that the CEO needs to layer another persona over his or her own. Nor does it mean that the CEO needs to be conventionally charismatic. The branding of many CEOs is modest, low key, and but their personal brand stands for something that key constituents relate to.

    Some CEOs have star power and are extremely media-genie. In this case, the challenge is to ensure that the CEO’s personal brand contributes to the corporate brand rather than distracts from it. The spotlight is put on the mission of the company, rather than on the personality of the CEO.

    Articulate your personal brand

    How do you identify and articulate your personal brand? Consider using archetypes-themes that tell a story. All business communication involves the telling of stories. An annual report is a story. A press release is a story. Archetypes tell the maximum story with minimum effort. We have all certain archetypes within us. In personal branding, focus on one or two major archetypes that explain your core motivation and strategies. For example, President George W. Bush is most effective when he takes on the Regular Guy persona. Al Gore is a Sage brand. The ability to make each person feel heard is the hallmark of a Lover brand and Bill Clinton personifies this. Hillary Clinton, on the other hand, is a true Ruler brand-fully in control.

    In business, Apple Computer is an Outlaw brand (” Think Different“), and its CEO Steve Jobs is a Creator/Outlaw brand. The close alignment between the company and its leader works well. Another Outlaw brand with a flavor of Warrior is Hong Kong entrepreneur Richard Li, whose career was built on taking risks and turning away from convention. Oracle Software is a Warrior brand, as is its CEO, Larry Ellison. Executives who work in healthcare often exemplify the Caregiver brand.

    What archetype is dominant for you and your company? When coaching executives, we use assessments and questions to uncover an executive’s dominant archetype, the basis of his or her personal brand. To discover your archetype, ask yourself: What do I value above all else? What do I represent? What is unique about me? What is my call to action? What is my greatest fear? What story am I living?

    Adjust your brand

    Once you have articulated your brand, check for congruence. Ask others, “Does this brand evoke me?” You should get agreement from your audiences. Is your brand aligned with your actions and words? Are your actions aligned with your desired branding? Are there conflicts within your archetypes? For example, if you have a strong Regular Guy streak, you probably fear standing out. Does this prevent you from stepping into a Ruler role when your leadership calls for it? Or does the Lover aspect of your personality conflict with the Wnniors need to achieve? Finally, ask yourself: Is this really who I want to be? How can I aim even higher? What quirks of mine can I incorporate into my branding? Most of us spend our lives trying to conform. This is a chance to celebrate our uniqueness.

    Live your brand

    As you implement your brand, you will find that you have some clear strengths and liabilities. Your brand will alienate some people, and that’s okay. Strong brands don’t try to be all things to all people. Each archetype presents both opportunities and traps. A Warrior leader can be powerful, but may not create a nurturing work environment.

    A Creator leader can be invigorating to follow, but may not be a structured thinker. Your strategy should be to mitigate your liabilities by flexing your behavior to meet the needs of the people and groups who are important to your business. For example, if you deal frequently with Ruler archetypes but are not a Ruler brand yourself, you will need to learn certain strategies and skills. By noticing your impact on your key audiences, and by stretching your skill set, you become a stronger, more flexible brand. Successful leaders who live their personal branding exercise a paradox. They are both deeply steeped in their own personal identities and deeply flexible toward their key audiences. Leaders who are good at both elements are authentic (true to themselves) and influential (powerful with others).

    A Brand is A Promise

    Remember: a brand is a promise, one that you make and fulfill, over and over. What promises are you and your company fulfilling? Fulfilling the business promise through effective communication yields a high Return on Communication.

    Adapting to Change and Managing the Transition Successfully

    Life is about adapting to change and ever-increasing demands. William Bridges was right: “It’s not the changes that do you in. Ifs the transitions.”

    Organizations must continually change. The question is “how?” The leader’s task is to make change work by helping others through transition.

    A successful transition …

    • Explains what is and what isn’t over. Some things never change: You will continue to serve customers and produce products. What changes is not what you do but how you do it. Help people identify what is and is not over.
    • Respects the past. The practices that frustrate you today were someone’s innovative solutions of the past. Do not criticize widely accepted practices. Accept them as right for that time while recognizing that times change.
    • Ensures the “important stuff” continues. What is the important stuff to you? Service? Ethics? Whatever it is, it must continue. Involve others in defining the “important stuff” and ensure that the change does not disregard them. This increases support for the change.
    • Sets the stage for the future. Today’s change will open your eyes to new opportunities. As you evolve, set goals for what you want to achieve. Measure and evaluate progress. And, show others how the change will move them toward a positive future.
    • Recognizes its day will end. Don’t assume that today’s solution will work forever. And don’t think that this will be the last change.

    Long-term success depends on anticipating and responding to change and making the transition.

    Build the Reputation Capital of your CEO

    By CEO capital, I mean the asset created by CEO’s reputation. It is the collective esteem that significant others, inside and outside company, hold for the company’s CEO and, for the company. It is the composite of perceptions about a CEO that a company’s stakeholders hold, whether these constituents are employees, analysts, investors, customers, media, regulators, or community leaders.

    This asset can be harnessed to advance a company’s success. But, like any other wealth-creating asset, CEO capital needs to be invested in, managed, and leveraged over time to reap enduring benefits. Companies can utilize the equity that accrues from CEO capital to attract more investors, partners, customers, applicants, and trust in corporate decisions. CEO reputations, when harnessed on behalf of corporate goals, impact a company’s success and viability.

    Every company must develop CEO capital, understand its underpinnings, and manage the important asset of its CEO’s reputation. When accumulated, CEO capital: Has a positive impact on a company’s reputation and success; produces clear, discernible, and valuable payoffs; is known to matter to influential constituencies; and affords more time to develop long-term solutions.

    What Builds CEO Capital?

    Five factors build CEO capital:

    1. Building credibility. This is critical to establishing a favorable CEO reputation. CEOs earn credibility by being consistently truthful and delivering on their promises and by matching behavior with their values.
    2. Abiding by a code of ethics. Setting and abiding by higher standards make a marked impression. CEOs must act in good faith according to ethical guidelines.
    3. Communicating internally. Unless CEOs communicate change and direction, most employees won’t know why and how they are being asked to lend their hands, hearts, and minds. To build CEO capital, CEOs must be tireless internal communicators.
    4. Attracting and retaining a quality management team. Having a highly regarded management team signals to stakeholders that the CEO has a strategy worth following. A top-notch team also signals that the CEO not only has the right people to execute his or her vision but also has prepared well for succession.
    5. Motivating and inspiring employees. CEOs must be pied pipers, serving as masters of ceremony at town hall meetings, leading anchors on global webcasts and teleconferences, and hosts at breakfast meetings. When CEOs inspire their employees, they build a better culture, leading to increased shareholder value. Everyone is a winner. Stakeholders look to see how CEOs manage people and put operating and social systems into place to build bench strength and keep employees loyal and productive.

    These top drivers of CEO capital must all be in place for a CEO to earn top honors. When one is missing, a CEO courts disaster.

    The goal is to leverage the wealth embedded in a CEO’s capital to enhance a company’s reputation and well-being, increasing its economic evaluation, and differentiating it from competitors. As a CEO builds capital, the CEO builds a company.