Advice to Entrepreneurs: Rio de Janeiro Olympics’s Carlos Nuzman on Building an Effective Team

In the world of entrepreneurship, there are plenty of entrepreneurs, plenty of venture capital. What is in short supply is great teams. An entrepreneur’s biggest challenge is building a great team. Here is advice from Carlos Nuzman on building an effective team. Carlos Nuzman is the head of Organizing Committee, the administrator of the 2015 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janairo

  • Carlos Nuzman, head of Rio de Janeiro Olympics On building an effective team: you’ve got to make sure you accommodate various skills, backgrounds, and views within the team. Hierarchy is paramount but managers need to be inspiring and lead by example. Team selection must ensure staff and organization share a common set of objectives and are fully behind the project. Dedication and hard work should be mandatory requirements.
  • Good internal communication and intermediate goal achieving rewards are effective ways of sustaining motivation. There must be a sense of pride for one another’s achievements and the feeling of ownership for the organization’s results. It’s also crucial that self-improvement among staffers fostered by the offer and encouragement of training opportunities.

'World Changers: 25 Entrepreneurs Who Changed Business as We Knew It' by John A. Byrne (ISBN 1591844509) Source: “World Changers: 25 Entrepreneurs Who Changed Business as We Knew It” by John A. Byrne. John Byrne, a former editor at BusinessWeek and Fast Company magazines, co-authored Jack: Straight from the Gut with Jack Welch, former General Electric Chairman and CEO. In “World Changers,” John Byrne interviews successful entrepreneurs like FedEx’s Fred Smith, Infosys’s Narayana Murthy, and Starbucks’s Howard Schultz and provides valuable insight into what makes entrepreneurs tick. John Byrne concludes that the three distinguishing characteristics of successful entrepreneurism are the opportunistic mindset, an ability to embrace risk, and sense of independence, control and urgency.

Recommended Reading

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Critical Success Factors for Joint Ventures

Joint Venture Management

According to the Association of Strategic Alliance Professionals, there are 7 critical success factors for joint ventures:

  1. Well-defined shared objectives
  2. An appropriate scope for the partnership
  3. Support of senior management from both the JV partners
  4. Devoted champions on both sides of the joint venture partnership
  5. Strong relationship management at all levels
  6. Cultural compatibility / or respect for diversity
  7. A high level of trust
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Masterworks of Modern Architecture: U.S. Commemorative Stamps

Masterworks of Modern Architecture: U.S. Commemorative Stamps

On 19-May-2005, the U.S. Postal Service saluted 12 masterworks of Modern American architecture by issuing a sheet of commemorative stamps. The talent and ingenuity of celebrated architects and builders of the modern era is brought to life by this spectacular sheet.

Notwithstanding the size of the stamps, the design of the stamps, the photographs chosen for each of the architectural masterpieces, and the spectacular imagery celebrate the twelve fantastic modernist buildings. Chicago hosts two of the masterworks, and New York City hosts three masterpieces.

Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY

Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) With its circular ramp coiling around a space topped by a glass dome, the Guggenheim Museum in New York City is one of the most exhilarating interiors in modern architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright meant to design the perfect space in which to contemplate an art collection, and the result was a virtual sculpture in its own right. The Guggenheim, located on Fifth Avenue across from Central Park, opened in 1959.

Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, CA

Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, CA (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) Frank Gehry combined thrilling curves with massive, unusual shapes to create the Walt Disney Concert Hall, home to the Los Angeles Philharmonic. The stainless steel of the bold exterior contrasts with the hardwood panels in the main auditorium, where patrons sit on all sides of the orchestra. The hall occupies a full city block and boasts state-of-the-art acoustics; it opened in 2003, making it the newest building on this stamp pane.

Yale Art and Architecture Building, New Haven, CT

Yale Art and Architecture Building, New Haven, CT (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) The Yale Art and Architecture Building, New Haven, CT, completed in 1963, is a solid, textured structure of concrete. Large skylights illuminate the dramatic main interior space, overlooked by mezzanines and bridges. Architect Paul Rudolph intended his bold urban building “to excite and challenge the occupants.”

Chrysler Building, New York, NY

Chrysler Building, New York, NY (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) The Chrysler Building in New York City is frequently praised as the greatest art deco skyscraper; its distinctive peak is a symbol of the jazz age. Since its completion in 1930, it has remained one of the most recognizable elements in the Manhattan skyline. William Van Alen’s design incorporated many references to Chrysler automobiles.

860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago, IL

860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago, IL (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) Lake Shore Apartments form two identical towers of steel and glass, each 26 stories tall, opened at 860-880 Lake Shore Drive in Chicago in 1951. Their pristine, spare elegance was the hallmark of architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s famous principle that “less is more.”

High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA

High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) Like most buildings designed by Richard Meier, the High Museum of Art in Atlanta is white, clad in porcelain-enameled steel panels. Its spiral form recalls the Guggenheim; it is divided into four quadrants, with one hollowed out to make room for a monumental atrium. Named for one of its benefactors, the High Museum opened in 1983.

Vanna Venturi House, Philadelphia, PA

Vanna Venturi House, Philadelphia, PA (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) Architect Robert Venturi designed what he characterized as “a little house with big scale, symbolizing shelter” for his mother. The Vanna Venturi house, located in Philadelphia and finished in 1964, is symbolically centered on the chimney and hearth; the chimney splits the structure and space extends outward from the hearth.

East Building of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

East Building of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) The East Building of the National Gallery of Art, known for its triangular shapes and light-filled atrium, is visually linked to the museum’s original West Building in part by use of the same marble. With its rigorously geometric design by I. M. Pei, it became one of the most noted attractions in Washington, DC upon its completion in 1978.

Central Reading Room at the Library of Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH

Central Reading Room at the Library of Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) The central reading room in the powerful library at Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH, is circled by balconies containing the stacks. Study carrels are positioned along the perimeter of the building, where small windows at eye level can be closed by sliding wooden shutters. Architect Louis I. Kahn completed the library for this noted prep school in Nov. 1971.

TWA Terminal at Kennedy Airport, New York, NY

TWA Terminal at Kennedy Airport, New York, NY (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) Eero Saarinen initially planned to study sculpture; perhaps that’s why his architecture shows a marked reliance on sculptural forms. His curving TWA terminal, completed in 1962 at what is now Kennedy Airport in New York City, is one of the first airport buildings to be considered a great monument of modern architecture.

The Glass House, New Canaan, CT

The Glass House, New Canaan, CT (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) As Philip Johnson once observed, “purpose is not necessary to make a building beautiful.” He designed his famous house of steel and glass more to be seen than to be lived in. Serene proportion, balance and overall symmetry distinguish this landmark in New Canaan, CT, one of the world’s most famous houses since its 1949 completion.

Hancock Center Tower, Chicago, IL

Hancock Center Tower, Chicago, IL (Modern American Architecture Stamps from USPS) The 100 story, multi-use Hancock Center tower in Chicago, affectionately known as “Big John,” was designed by architect Bruce Graham and engineer Fazlur Khan of the firm Skidmore, Owings and Merri and completed in 1970. Crisscrossing braces stacked up the side of the building-actually square steel tubes-carry most of its weight.

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Conscious Leaders Honor the Trust Placed in Them

Conscious Leadership

The world have witnessed huge lapses in leadership, as many leaders have either betrayed our trust by doing something unethical or self-serving or failed to do anything positive, allowing unwanted conditions to persist. While these events say something about the quality of the people in positions of power and influence, they may say even more about those of us who add legitimacy to their positions by our acceptance, trust, and belief.

Are we getting what we deserve? What makes real leaders who are fit for the times? How do we distinguish between authentic leaders who are worthy of our trust from the bogus leaders who disappoint and damage us?

Good management is based on good mechanics—like procedures, technique, models, and policies. Good leadership requires more creativity, articulating and bringing forth a vision. It calls for solid intuition, instinct, and a good “feel” for what is needed.

Leadership that originates inside is of higher quality than the leadership that comes from outside. Leadership and conscious leadership are not the same thing. To learn the latter, leaders must exercise their moral compass. Organizational theorists call this inner-directed style “conscious leadership,” since it isn’t so concerned with conforming to some model, code, or form but is grounded in the “energy field” of everyone involved—the group consciousness.

Conscious leaders know what is right and proper (or they ask if they are not sure). Their “knowing” comes from their internal moral compass. Their leadership emerges from their sense of self, not from policy, procedures, techniques, and systems.

Bogus Leadership

Bogus leadership is often the result of following some blueprint, script, election procedure, or career path without making any serious mistakes. Usually bogus leaders have good intentions. They do the best they can within the limits of their thinking and conditioning, what they know and whom they think they are. However, poor leadership is often the result of unconscious behavior—acts and attitudes rooted in familiarity, insecurity fear, immaturity, mimicry, disappointment, hurt, and other factors that cause people to create public personas and images. When we engage the world from image, we get the menu, not the meal. Bogus leaders protect what they have been in the past. Real leaders focus on what they are becoming in the future.

Managers who are asked to step into leadership roles often apply what they learned as managers to their new responsibilities. By adapting their old skill sets to their new roles, they operate from structure or form rather than from who they are. Those who inherit their positions through nepotism or planned succession can also fall into this trap.

Bogus leadership is image-based, so the trappings make it appear that a person is a bona fide leader.

Conscious leaders possess confidence in which they are as people, along with an abiding trust that they are up for whatever situations come their way. Conscious leaders distinguish themselves by doing that which is untimely, out of favor, and even provisionally unprofitable in the service of long-term health and value.

Bogus Leadership Bogus leaders need to consult with their image before taking action. They need to check regulations, codes of ethics, advisors, polls, and focus groups. When people confuse their image with which they are, their image must be preserved by all means, as a matter of survival.

Conscious leaders are loyal to the proper course of action. They certainly seek advice and gather all the facts they need, but their choices need not pass through the filters of image. When we observe these people in action, we may think they are “natural born leaders,” since their abilities and choices are so innately appropriate. They do not rely on force to get what they need. Having dominion over themselves, they feel no need to dominate others. They inspire rather than intimidate people. They have mastery without having to manipulate people or circumstances.

Conscious leaders are always growing and learning. Their only limits are self-imposed. True leaders inspire us. They are masters of their craft. They come across as real and human. They possess a magic that does not rely on charisma alone but is grounded in absolute grace. These people shine in times of difficulty.

Why do we tolerate, condone, and empower bogus leaders? Why do we allow them to gain positions of influence? Why do we give them legitimacy? Are we so image-conscious that we cannot tell the difference between an actor and a real leader? Are we so lazy or apathetic that we allow anyone who sounds good and looks the part to speak for us and make decisions that affect us?

Have we abdicated our responsibility by turning our backs on meaning and purpose in our lives, becoming desensitized to mediocrity, dysfunction, addictions, and incivility? If we tolerate, condone, and empower bogus leaders, we deserve what we get—mediocre government degenerating values, unethical and greedy leaders, hypocritical priests, dysfunctional teams, bureaucratic gridlock, and spiritual bankruptcy. We add legitimacy to their reigns by our passive tolerance and failure to eject them.

When you are trusted, you have a sacred responsibility to represent those people you are serving. The more people counting on you and entrusting their futures to you, the more responsibility you have to honor that trust and serve the interests of your constituency.

When we abandon our reliance on image, we find new levels of self-confidence and self-trust. Bogus leaders need to dump their image, tear up their scripts, and get real with whom they are and whom they are serving.

Have we abdicated our responsibility by turning our backs on meaning and purpose in our lives, becoming desensitized to mediocrity, dysfunction, addictions, and incivility? If we tolerate, condone, and empower bogus leaders, we deserve what we get—mediocre government degenerating values, unethical and greedy leaders, hypocritical priests, dysfunctional teams, bureaucratic gridlock, and spiritual bankruptcy. We add legitimacy to their reigns by our passive tolerance and failure to eject them.

How to Develop Conscious Leadership

  • Clarity over expectations, a leadership vision, execution, and delivering on the expectations of the stakeholders is the foundation for a successful, conscious leader.
  • Conscious leaders make it clear that they actually welcome and are comfortable with nonconforming viewpoints. Their actions reinforce their words. They ensure that the person who are challenging them are listened to, even if such communication is uncomfortable or personally challenging to receive.
  • Conscious leaders understand that, when they are trusted, they have a sacred responsibility to represent those people they are serving. The more people counting on the leaders and entrusting their futures to the leaders, the more responsibility these leaders have to honor that trust and serve the interests of their constituencies.

When we abandon our reliance on image, we find new levels of self-confidence and self-trust. Bogus leaders need to dump their image, tear up their scripts, and get real with whom they are and whom they are serving.

Conscious leaders can be developed by deepening their principles, their sense of purpose, expanding their capability to navigate difficult and complex circumstances, and enriching their emotional resilience. Given the right conditions, virtually anyone can develop capacity to lead consciously. It is important that individuals intending to exercise conscious leadership build and nurture organizations with a broader aim without risking being engrossed in short-term goals that dominate many profit-driven businesses.

Conscious leadership, in the end, is not something we do. It is something we become.

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Leadership Lessons from the New York Yankees

New York Yankees

Maintaining a competitive position for eight decades is a rare feat. Yet since 1921, the New York Yankees have been in the World Series 40 times and have won 27 times. What enables them to win decade after decade?

Here are 14 leadership principles that represent the Yankees’ best management practices. These are divided into three factors that represent keys for building a dynasty—leadership, processes, and culture.

Leadership Foundation

  1. Cultivate ownership values from the top down. Winning owners bring to their teams a passion to win, an opportunistic spirit, and an ownership mindset.
  2. Hire the best frontline managers you can find. Since team performance is influenced by their decisions, field managers should possess all the professional, citizenship, and leadership competencies to create excellence.
  3. Formally recognize your informal leaders. They are the individuals who excel at their job, inspire others to excel, and who display behaviors that bring credit to the team. They are respected as leaders by their teammates.

Processes for Developing a Dynasty

  1. Set the bar higher than your people have ever seen it have clear standards. Everyone must be clear as to what constitutes winning. All players must accept that individual accomplishments are subordinate to the team goal. Use spirited rivalries to stimulate internal excellence.
  2. Make organizational competences the heart of your appraisal process. Competencies are the observable and measurable skills, values, and behaviors that contribute to enhanced performance. Competencies must be clearly defined as the basis for assessment.
  3. Make everyone on the team a talent scout. Expand your scouting field by instilling talent assessment and scouting as an organizational value.
  4. Create a balance of superstars, stars, and solid performers. Dynasty teams develop around a blend of players at varying performance levels—superstars, stars, and solid performers.
  5. Establish your talent strategy and fill in the gaps. Identify and retain superstars, or acquire them from your competitors. Make sure your “battery” (key positions) has star and potential star backups. And ensure that everyone is at least a “solid player.”
  6. Create a solid farm system. Minor league teams feed talent up. Young talented players are developed, their skills are honed, and they learn team values.
  7. Pay your people based on their actual and potential contribution. The Yankees use this assessment as the basis for player salary decisions.
  8. Make the superstar the focal point. Superstars are in short supply. Cultivate your own superstars and strategically hire your competitor’s superstars.

Design Your Culture for Success

  1. Scout for a diverse talent pool in unconventional places. Consider talent from all sources and translate this diversity into on field box-office success.
  2. Celebrate your history, heroes, and legends. Create traditions of excellence. The Yankees are an American success story that has captured the imagination of people worldwide.
  3. Boldly promote your tradition of excellence. The Yankees associate the Yankee brand with winning to become an employer of choice.

Recommended Reading on the Yankees and Leadership

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MYANMAR: The Best Sights, Destinations, and Experiences (ASEAN Travel)

Best Sights of Myanmar

Mandalay, Bagan, Inle, and Yangon—these names all conjure up the wonder that is Myanmar, at least in a traveler’s mind. Now, you have the freedom to venture a little farther as well. With recent reforms easing restrictions in this proud country, it is finally time to see what Myanmar has been hiding away all these years.

Myanmar: At a Glance

Experience the Best Attractions of Myanmar

  1. Chauk Htat Gyi Pagoda, Yangon Architecture 101: Former capitals are full of old glory and great architecture, and Yangon is not far behind. Spend the day marveling at the colossal reclining Buddha at Chauk Htat Gyi Pagoda, the gold-hued Botataung Pagoda and Sule Pagoda, the Burmese Yangon City and the colonial-styled Supreme Court.
  2. Bogyoke Aung San Market, Yangon Hunt for Bargains: The Bogyoke Aung San Market (sometimes known by its British name, Scott’s Market) is a sprawling old handicrafts bazaar of around 2,000 shops. Spend the day alongside locals, haggling for colorful Shan shoulder bags, and interesting bits of local arts and crafts, jewelry, ancient antiques, and lacquer ware.
  3. Mohinga, Rice noodles served with fish soup It’s All Rice: Rice, in all its forms, is a staple in the distinctive cuisine of Myanmar. Rice noodles served with fish soup, known locally as mohinga, are a favorite breakfast dish, and are usually eaten on special occasions.
  4. Mandalay Hill, Myanmar Get a Bird’s Eye View: Climb up Mandalay Hill for an all-encompassing view of how flat Mandalay really is. You will see the Irrawaddy twisting across the land from up here, while you help a local monk brush up his English. This hallowed spot is where Buddha once prophesied the founding of a great city.
  5. Inle Lake Boating, Myanmar Row, Row, Row Your Boat: Surrounded by greenery and marshes, cool morning mists, villages of houses on stilts and floating gardens, the Inle Lake is usually pretty. You can get around the lake on a motorized canoe, or ask around if you want to float about on a traditional flat-bottomed Intha skiff.
  6. Myinkaba Age-old lacquer, Myanmar Art Lessons: Bagan, in the Mandalay region, brims with graceful ruins of old temples, pagodas, and stupas. Between Old and New Bagan, the village of Myinkaba boasts an age-old lacquer ware tradition; you can spend hours rummaging through excellently crafted cups, plates, and boxes, wondering just how many you can fit into your luggage.
  7. Bawbawgyi Pagoda, Thayekhittaya Wander through Ruins: Thayekhittaya or the ‘Fabulous City’ a Pyu capital of long ago, was destroyed almost as long ago by Chinese invaders, and today, it has been nominated for a UNESCO World Heritage listing. Rumble through the ruins among the overgrown bush on an ox cart, and explore the Bawbawgyi Pagoda, one of the oldest in the city, and the Leimyethna Pagoda, with Buddhist relief carvings.
  8. Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon Pagoda Sunsets: Make your way up to the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon as the sun begins to set, the golden spires of the temple light up, monks glide past and local residents trickle in to pay their respects as the sky takes on various colors of pink, oranges and blues. Look for a quiet spot, settle down, and enjoy the peace of the evening.
  9. Mount Popa, Myanmar Find Your Spiritual Side: Go forth and find your holy spirit at Mount Popa, an extinct volcano and the abode of 37 nats or local spirits, once so important that the early kings were rumored to consult them on crucial matters. The solitary peak is covered in stupas; the statues at the base are of the spirits.
  10. Irrawaddy River, Myanmar I am with Stupa: Sagaing lies along the Irrawaddy River, across the only bridge that spans it. It is dotted with white and gold pagodas that shimmer away in the sun, and if you clamber up the tree-hung stairways past ancient monasteries that lead up to various viewpoints, the spectacle of stupas is something else.
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Legendary Primatologist Jane Goodall on Spirituality

Legendary Primatologist Jane Goodall on Spirituality

British anthropologist Jane Goodall is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute, which promotes wildlife conservation and research, and a United Nations Messenger of Peace. As the world’s foremost primatologist and expert on chimpanzees, Jane Goodall observed Tanzanian apes for over 50 years and revolutionized mankind’s knowledge of chimpanzee behavior.

In the May-2008 issue of O, The Oprah Magazine, Jane Goodall discussed her spirituality:

… amazing moments—when you seem to know something beyond what you know and to understand things you don’t understand—can’t be understood in this life.

When asked if she believes in God in an interview published in the Sep-2010 issue of Reader’s Digest, Jane Goodall said,

I don’t have any idea of who or what God is. But I do believe in some great spiritual power. I feel it particularly when I’m out in nature. It’s just something that’s bigger and stronger than what I am or what anybody is. I feel it. And it’s enough for me.

Jane Goodall is a dedicated vegetarian and advocates the vegetarian diet for ethical, environmental, and health reasons.

Farm animals are far more aware and intelligent than we ever imagined and, despite having been bred as domestic slaves, they are individual beings in their own right. As such, they deserve our respect. And our help. Who will plead for them if we are silent? Thousands of people who say they ‘love’ animals sit down once or twice a day to enjoy the flesh of creatures who have been treated so with little respect and kindness just to make more meat.

In ‘Reason for Hope: A Spiritual Journey,’ Jane Goodall tracks her ambitions and accomplishments as one of the world’s foremost primatologist to her childhood roots, tenderly inviting young readers to follow in her spiritual footsteps. In the first chapter, she writes:

'Reason for Hope: A Spiritual Journey' by Jane Goodall (ISBN 0446676136) I do not want to discuss evolution in [depth], only touch on it from my own perspective: from the moment when I stood on the Serengeti plains holding the fossilized bones of ancient creatures in my hands to the moment when, staring into the eyes of a chimpanzee, I saw a thinking, reasoning personality looking back. You may not believe in evolution, and that is all right. How we humans came to be the way we are is far less important than how we should act now to get out of the mess we have made for ourselves. How should the mind that can contemplate God relate to our fellow beings, the other life-forms of the world? What is our human responsibility? And what, ultimately, is our human destiny?

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Your Employees Cannot Read Your Mind

Your Employees Cannot Read Your Mind

You must communicate your expectations of your employees very clearly. Do not suppose that your employees know what you want them to do. Alas, they cannot read your mind. You may get annoyed, angry, and upset when they do not do what you expect them to do, but they cannot instinctively know what you want.

If you see an employee doing something wrong, it is your responsibility to let him know of what they have done wrong, explain the impact of their behavior, and suggest that they correct. Often, your employee might not have a clue that he is doing something the wrong way, and unless you point it out, he may never know. The fact that you know does no good unless you clearly spell it out.

Communicate. Be verbal. Praise the positive and tweak the negative. Explain the goals of the organization and convey the goals and actions of each employee to help to the company achieve its objectives.

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Advice to Entrepreneurs: Nike’s Phil Knight on the Importance of Marketing

Entrepreneurism is not just about implementing a creative or inventive idea. Rather, entrepreneurism is about the quest for a way to turn some aspect of that idea into a product or service that potential customers are willing to pay for. Here is advice from Phil Knight on the importance of marketing. Phil Knight is the founder of Nike, the corporation that is engaged in the design, development and worldwide marketing and selling of footwear.

  • Phil Knight, founder of Nike On the importance of marketing: the product is almost important marketing tool. What I mean is that marketing nets the whole organization together. The design elements and functional characteristics of the product itself are just part of the overall marketing process. Everything spins off the customer. And while technology is still important, a customer has to lead innovation.
  • Whether you’re talking about the core consumer or the person on the street, the principle is the same: you have to come up with what the consumer wants, and you need a vehicle to understand it. To understand the rest of the pyramid, we do a lot of work at the grassroots level.

'World Changers: 25 Entrepreneurs Who Changed Business as We Knew It' by John A. Byrne (ISBN 1591844509) Source: “World Changers: 25 Entrepreneurs Who Changed Business as We Knew It” by John A. Byrne. John A. Byrne is chairman and editor-in-chief of C-Change Media Inc., a digital media startup Byrne was previously executive editor and editor-in-chief of BusinessWeek.com and founding editor at Fast Company. Byrne is the author or co-author of eight books on business, leadership, and management, including Jack: Straight from the Gut with Jack Welch, former Chairman and CEO of General Electric. In “World Changers,” John Byrne presents potent advice on entrepreneurism and fascinating insights into what it takes to succeed as entrepreneurs from successful business luminaries such as Apple’s Steve Jobs to HARPO’s Oprah, from India’s Ratan Tata to Brazil’s Eike Batista. John Byrne concludes that the three distinguishing characteristics of successful entrepreneurism are the opportunistic mindset, an ability to embrace risk, and sense of independence, control and urgency.

Recommended Reading

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Thought Experiments

Thought Experiments

A thought experiments is a procedure of the imagination used to investigate the nature of things. Thought experiments consist of the use of hypothetical examples and counterexamples to prove or refute philosophical analyses or theories.

When contemplating imaginative suppositions, thought experiments are used to consider variations of an existing thinking or a line of reasoning. To use a thought experiment is to reason about an imagined scenario with the intention of confirming or disconfirming some hypothesis or theory.

The most interesting thought experiments are those which not only refute an existing theory but also suggest a new one which they lend rational support.

Thought experiments are employed to consider the implications of theories and to investigate the boundaries of concepts. They are well-structured exercises of the imagination in which test cases are envisioned with a view to establishing their conceptual coherence or their compatibility with some proposed theory.

Some academics passionately oppose the theoretical use of thought experiments as substituting imaginativeness for reality, but since philosophical argument is often concerned to ascertain exactly what is possible, it is hard to see how philosophy could do without thought experiments altogether.

The most famous examples of the use of thought experiments are,

For further reading, see “Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy” by Melanie Frappier, Letitia Meynell, James Robert Brown or “Thought Experiments” by R. A. Sorensen or other books on the use of throught processes.

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