The Splendors of Monuments, Sites, Museums of South India

The Splendors of Monuments, Sites, Museums of South India

The southern travel market in India has fully-fledged and offers great potential for incoming, domestic and outbound business. Most of the participants in the travel trade are keen on establishing and making their presence in the southern market click. Here are some of the selections given by association presidents on the latent potential of South India as a travel destination. To list the important suggestions in a nutshell, the inbound segment at present is witnessing remarkable growth as these states compete more assertively in the highly competitive global tourism industry.

'Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums' by George Michell (ISBN 8174369201) George Michell provides a revolutionary and ornately illustrated introduction to the architecture, sculpture and portrait of Southern India under the South Indian Empires and the states that succeeded it. This period, encompassing some four hundred years, from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century, was endowed with an abundance of religious and royal monuments which remain as testaments to the history and philosophy behind their evolution. The author evaluates the vestige of this artistic heritage, describing and illustrating buildings, sculptures and paintings that have never been published before. In a formerly neglected area of art history, the author presents an original and much needed reconsideration.

Architecture and Art of Southern India

Architecture and Art of Southern India

The overall aim of this volume is to provide an introduction to the architecture and art of Southern India under the South Indian Empires and the lesser kingdoms that succeeded it. The chronological span of the survey opens with the foundation of South Indian kingdoms in the middle of the fourteenth century and closes with the decline of the successor states in the middle of the eighteenth century. The most important of these successor states were founded by the Nayakas, originally governors under the South Indian kingdoms and emperors; but other figures also emerged as independent rulers towards the end of this era.

'Lonely Planet South India & Kerala' by Lonely Planet (ISBN 1743216777) Stretching along India’s southwestern coast, Kerala is home to beautiful seashores and backwaters, luxuriant jungles and tea-covered hills. This compact trip offers a chance to experience a part of India that’s truly off the beaten path. Paddle a canoe along lush canals, explore historic forts and palaces, sample flavorful cuisine, and more.

The general dealing of the subject reveals the author’s intimate acquaintance with different aspects of the culture of South India. The book is the outcome of long and arduous work in this field.

Later Hindu architecture, that is, after the twelfth century, has been neglected until reasonably recently, under the supposition that the finest constructions of Hindu artists were earlier and that later work was simply repetitive, debased, or degenerate. The sheer number of temples to study and the fact that they remain in use have also proved problematic. In south India the temple architecture of the South Indian Empires is now better known, but many consider the fall of the capital in 1565 to have resulted in the end of main temple construction.

City and Town Names in Southern India

City and town names in Southern India are commonly rendered in a wide range of spellings, some of which preserve nineteenth-century British usage. There is no attempt here to bring this linguistic misunderstanding into a single system; to the contrary, place names adhere to common practice, as is reflected in present-day maps and road signs. Significant variations, however, are given in the first allusion of a particular place in the text, sanctioning concordance with other works of reference.

Culinary Experiences in Southern India

Tourism industry is one of the most emergent sectors in South India. Attainment of tourism and hospitality segment depends upon the skill set of the human resources; quality training & education shall produce real professionals in this sector. Tourism education is a special branch of education in India to train and hearten individuals for providing first-class hospitality services. The main purpose of this is to focus on how education tries to fill up the necessities of tourism sector in South India. This paper tries to evaluate various scopes and challenges for the education system in tourism and hospitality. It also proposes a multi-disciplinary education design for tourism education in South India and emphasizes the changing role of tourism education in generating youth employability. On the basis of ancillary data analysis this study tries to examine the development of hospitality & tourism education in South India. Opportunities and challenges for tourism education initiatives by the government for augmenting the youth employability in the tourism sector.

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Six Drivers of Creativity and Risk-Taking

Six Drivers of Creativity

It is not enough to want to become more creative and to take more risks. To do so means challenging yourself, your team, and the organization. Moving out of our comfort zones is something we rarely do. Yet when we do, we gain insights into our own character. We can then reshape ourselves to the way we want. This is also the case with organizations and teams. But it means changing the culture.

The culture is reflected in what the organization or team values and how it does its business, as well as its propensity for risk taking and creativity. How does your organization view risk taking? Does your culture punish or reward people for taking risks? How willing are you to take risks at work?

Your propensity for risk taking is, in part, a function of the culture. If your boss doles out punitive measures for anyone who fails at a task, you play it safe. Or, if eyes roll when you offer an idea at a brainstorming session, you think twice about offering ideas.

The creativity or risk taking in a culture is consistent with the characteristics of one of seven orientations: Challenger, Innovator, Drean1er, Sustainer, Planner, Modifier, or Practicalizer. This composite profile becomes the group’s norm. Changing the group norm is difficult.

We need to focus on what we can influence directly: our immediate work teams and ourselves. Our efforts in these areas can yield powerful results.

Use these drivers of creativity and risk taking to build innovative capacity:

  1. Creativity driver 1: Ambiguity and its opposite, predictability. Operating in an ambiguous situation means dealing with uncertainty and vagueness. Those who function effectively in ambiguous circumstances don’t require highly structured situations, goals, or objectives to accomplish or create things, ideas, services, or products. Growth in this area yields innovative solutions. Since dealing with ambiguity is challenging, many people try to control variables, chart alternative courses of action, and eliminate the impact of uncertainty. The opposite of ambiguity is predictability. People who demand predictability require structure, clarity, and definition.
  2. Creativity driver 2: Independence and its opposite, dependence. Independence means not being subject to the control, influence, or determination of others. People who are independent will not subordinate themselves to others. They don’t like to be managed by others. They are self-empowered. They don’t have to be given direction. They don’t like to ask for help, believing their way to be the best way. Dependent people need direction from someone. They do not take action without prior approval.
  3. Creativity driver 3: Inner-directedness and its opposite, other-directedness. Inner-directed people and teams feel a great sense of purpose. They often have clear vision of the future. People who are inner-directed believe that they are responsible for determining their own destiny, expectations, and norms. They are guided by their own set of values. They sometimes believe that no one really understands them. Often, they have difficulty reconciling personal agendas to corporate directives. People who are other-directed are always concerned about what everyone else thinks or is doing. Other-directed people don’t take the lead without input from others.
  4. Creativity driver 4: Uniqueness and its opposite, conformity. Uniqueness is appreciating and valuing differences. People and teams that value uniqueness look for creativity in themselves and others. They foster it. They first look for the differences, not to accentuate them, but appreciate and take advantage of them. The opposite of uniqueness is conformity, acting in ways that conform to current styles, norms, or expectations.

Six Drivers of Risk-Taking

  1. Risk-taking driver 1: Authentic and its opposite, political. Authentic means being what you purport to be. Authentic people and teams live by their core beliefs; they mean what they say and say what they mean. Their actions are congruent with their espoused values. They “walk their talk” and “tell it like it is.” They take stands on issues. They are true and genuine. Its opposite is being political. Political people don’t communicate with others directly. They are always navigating or positioning for self-advantage.
  2. Risk-taking driver 2: Resiliency and its opposite, rigidity. Resiliency is the ability to rebound, adapt, and learn, even in the face of adversity and stress. Resilient people pick themselves up after being knocked down. They believe that something good always comes out of a bad experience. They create options. They persevere. They get the job done, sometimes by the force of their will. Its opposite is rigidity or inflexibility in response to change, rejection, or setbacks.
  3. Risk-taking driver 3: Self-acceptance and its opposite, victimization. Self-accepting means to be approving of one’s own behaviors or actions. Self-accepting people like themselves and their situations. They exhibit self-confidence. They are unlikely to say they’re sorry about much, because they have few regrets. They don’t try to be perfect. They like themselves, in spite of themselves sometimes. Its opposite is victimization. Victimized people complain and blame others.

If everyone on your team cultivated these drivers, your innovative capacity would accelerate rapidly.

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Resplendent Sculpture of Avalokiteshvara from Kurkihar (Bihar, India) from 12th Century

Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara from Kurkihar, Bihar

The bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, a sculpture originated from Kurkihar, during the reign of Ramapala of the Pala dynasty, 11th-12th century. Kurkihar is the historical site was visited by Buddhist pilgrims in the ancient times including the Chinese travelers Fa-Hien and Hieun Tsang. It lies at a distance of approximately 22 km from the Gaya district.

This bodhisattva sits on a double lotus in lalitasana; his right foot rests on a lotus emanating from the base, suggesting that a prabhamandala was in place on another base. His right hand is stretched out, bestowing blessings and boons. The left hand holds a lotus stem which blooms over his left shoulder.

Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara sits on a Double Lotus in Lalitasana Wearing a girdle with pearls around his waist, the other jewels comprise a necklace, bracelets, arm-bands and a beaded sacred thread that drapes over his right thigh. Notable are the twin kirtimukha, faces, on his armbands. His hair, arranged in a coiffure on top of his head, contains an effigy of Amitabha.

Kurkihar: Relic of an ancient Buddhist Monastery

Kurkihar is a village about three miles north east of Wazirgunj. It deserves mention on account of the remarkable abundance of ancient remains. Carved slabs of large size and architectural fragments of all kinds are found in plenty, often built into the walls of houses. Votive stupas are to be found in abundance on the edge of a large tank, great quantities of large bricks of ancient make are still being dug out of the great mound. Some well-preserved statues had been removed by the local zamindar to his house, the most important of which is a figure of bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.

There is another collection of ancient sculptures in the courtyard of the temple of Bhagwati, among which is a singularly beautiful figure of Buddha in meditation. At Punawan, three miles to the south-west are more Buddhist remains. Here stood the once famous temple of Trailoknath which does not now exist.

A large mound that this village sits on the top of is the remains of what was a Buddhist monastery in antique times. The village hit the headlines in 1930 when one hundred and forty-eight bronze articles were dug out of this mound. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of all sizes, bells, stupas and ritual objects of the finest workmanship were recovered. Most of these are now on display in a special room in the Patna Museum.

The second of Kurkihar’s two Hindu temples still has a large collection of Buddhist sculptures in it that have been found in the area over the years. One of the best of these is a fine statue of Akshobhya Buddha just outside the entrance of the temple. Note the fourteen calved pillars in the temple also, they date from about the 9th century.

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Human Conscience is an Unending Stream of Continuous Thought

William James and his concept of Stream of Consciousness

Although the concept of the mind possessing a streaming consciousness can be found in early Buddhist texts, the first modern approach to the phenomenon was put forward by William James (1842-1910), one of the United States’ first recognized psychologists in his 1,200-word masterwork The Principles of Psychology in 1899.

In this book, James speaks of consciousness as being “unbroken” and states that there are no “gaps,” or as he liked to say no “intrusive alien substances,” that come along to distinguish or break up one period of consciousness from the next. For consciousness to be interrupted by gaps or intrusions, James thought, is like “expecting the eye to feel a gap of silence because it does not hear, or the ear to feel a gap of darkness because it does not see. So much,” he said, “for the gaps that are unfelt.”

Consciousness, rather than being “chopped up,” was likened instead by James to a river or stream, a process that is ever-flowing even in the event of a sudden interruption, such as an explosion or losing one’s footing and falling over. These sorts of things-a clap of thunder or the sound of a gunshot—are about as disconnected from our present thoughts as “a joint in bamboo is a break in the wood.” The thunder clap is as intrinsically a part of our continuing, unbroken consciousness as the joint is a part of the bamboo in which it grows. James believed that our cognitive experiences overlap one another and are linked by what he called “fringes,” subconscious tabs, which act as clasps that are necessary in binding our conscious thoughts together, and prevent us from living in a chaotic inner world of random, unrelated experiences.

James’s theory influenced literature and became a narrative device to depict the multitudinous thoughts and feelings that pass through an individual’s mind. James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922) is one of the best-known examples of the stream of consciousness technique. William James wrote in Principles of Psychology (1890) that, “The attempt at introspective analysis in these cases is in fact like seizing a spinning top to catch its motion, or trying to turn up the gas quickly enough to see how the darkness looks.”

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Posted in Mental Models and Psychology Philosophy and Wisdom

Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #1, Peter

Repentance of St. Peter by Jusepe de Ribera, Oil on canvas, Spain, 17th century, State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Holy Scripture identifies Peter the first of all the apostles, though Peter, a modest fisherman, never put himself first. In many ways the holy apostle is most like us, for his compound nature exposes him to be very human; he is passionate and loyal, cowardly and courageous.

Once called Simon, he was given the name Peter (meaning rock) by Jesus, who said of him, “Upon this rock I will build my church.” (Matthew I 6:13-19)

Jesus moreover told Peter at the Last Supper that he would deny him. Peter loved his master, yet that night, after Jesus’ arrest by the temple soldiers, a terrified Peter swore three times he did not know Jesus. Then he recalled Jesus’ prediction and was almost driven to misery for his timidity. Unlike Judas, the apostle who betrayed Jesus, Peter deeply atoned and was pardoned.

Following the Resurrection, Jesus appeared to his apostles. On one such occasion he was by the Sea of Galilee as they were out fishing. Identifying him, they swiftly turned their boat toward the shore. But Peter was too impatient and eager— spontaneously he jumped into the water and swam to his master. (John 21:1–8.) Whilst all the rest were filled with the greatest joy to see Jesus, Peter alone seems to have been driven by his brash heart.

Symbols of St. Peter, the Apostle: Keys, Cockerel at Holy Trinity Church, Hildersham, UK After Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit descended upon the apostles rousing them to preach the word of God, Peter and the others endangered their lives everyday going about their master’s work. In the Acts of the Apostles we discover that it wasn’t long before Peter was imprisoned, but as he lay asleep in his cell, an angel of the Lord came and liberated him.

The location of Peter and Andrew’s house is still marked today. A church was built on the site in A.D. 352. Later it was substituted by a basilica, and excavators unearthed two ancient fish hooks and a small axe for cutting stone. Possibly the fish hooks and axe belonged to Peter and his brother.

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Create Partners, Not Employees or Followers

People want to succeed. The vast majority want to feel good about themselves and their work. Nevertheless, sometimes, it is tremendously difficult to balance day-to-day duties with the emotional needs of your employees.

There are no quick fixes or simple formulas for generating a culture that unleashes the competency of people. It occasionally requires intervention into a number of dimensions of organizational life: challenging management philosophy and practices, communicating and aligning everyone to the business strategy, cultivating processes and systems, providing training in social and business skills, etc.

Whom would you rather have at your side in a tough spot? A partner who shares full responsibility for decisions and their outcomes? Alternatively, a subordinate who does just what you say and shuts up about ideas he has that may be better.

Rationally, you want the former; emotionally, you may choose the latter. Leaders bow to a multitude of short-term pressures: severe demands for quarterly earnings, risk aversion, distress with uncertainty, resistance to change, linear extrapolation from past experience, and reluctance to cannibalize established businesses.

'It's Okay to Be the Boss' by Bruce Tulgan (ISBN 0061121363) Reflect on your career. Have you ever kept quiet when superiors were creating problems? What caused you to withhold your counsel?

I guarantee you they were being “the boss.” Everything about their tone, body language, verbal language, and behavior was indicating you that they were the boss and you were the subordinate. Chances are you learned from them what a boss looks and sounds like. Whether you admired their style or not, some of it rubbed off on you.

When you act as a superior, you will have subordinates. Act as a partner, and you will have partners. Yes, you may be the senior partner, but they are still partners, not underlings, or subordinates.

One key dissimilarity between the behavior of a “boss” and a “partner” is the way you talk. You talk differently to partners. It is not just what you say, but how you say it. To a subordinate, you might say, “This client wants his order fulfilled now. Make it happen.”

What is the message? It is not just “Get the order done now,” but it is also “I’m the boss; this is what I want—and there could be outcomes if I don’t get it.” It does not require a dramatic act to make the point that the receiver is your subordinate. Are you aware of how often and in how many ways you send similar messages?

This is not how you would talk to a partner. You might be just as clear about what you want and when; however, your delivery would create partnership, not subservience. You might ask, “How can we do that?” Alternatively, “Can you make it happen?” You would seek the individual’s knowledge, responsibility, and mutual obligation. When employees are seen as partners, they will understand that their leaders do not simply see them as the means to achieve their own personal targets.

You talk differently to folks below you than to folks across from or above you. So what? The higher you go, the less direct experience you have of customers, stakeholders, and problems. It is harder to get a real feel for what is happening. You become more reliant on on good information and insight from those who are in touch. So, they need to feel invited to tell you the reality they see, especially when it differs from the one you believe is out there.

You likely think that you already extend this encouragement, but you may discourage people from giving you inconvenient information. Unless you make an effort to discover in what ways you do this, you will continue to do so.

Create Partners with Your Subordinates

Create Partners with Your Subordinates

To create partners and have your employees’ best interests in mind, try this exercise:

  • Start every meeting with a question: “Is there anything I’m not getting about this issue that you think I should?”
  • Whatever the answer, respond with interest and ask, “Can you tell me more about that or give an example to help me understand it better?”
  • Ask questions until you have clarity on the points. Do not argue. Do not cross-examine—just clarify.
  • Thank the individual or group making these points.
  • Incorporate what makes sense into the decisions.
  • If no one spoke up, after the meeting ask the individual who is likely to be forthright, “What am I doing that keeps everyone from talking?”
  • If this individual gives you insight into how you dissuade feedback, convey your gratefulness. Find a way to reward the honesty.
  • Invite this truth-teller to sit in on more meetings and after each one gives you feedback on anything you did that made others act as subordinates.

Simple Ways to Build Trust With Your Employees

Build Trust with Your Employees

Trust is established when even the newest rookie, a part-timer, or the lowest paid employee feels important and part of the team. This begins with management not being reserved, as well as getting out and meeting the troops.

'The 27 Challenges Managers Face' by Bruce Tulgan (ISBN 111872559X) By doing this you will have the self-awareness to create partners. You will also have earned their trust. They will give you their best advice and devotedly support decisions that are based on reality.

By creating this environment where your employees are treated as partners working toward a shared purpose, you will foster in your employees a sense of ownership not simply to their job, but to the whole process. This will inspire not only partnership between the company’s divisions/teams, but it will also help nurture innovation as employees are stimulated to look beyond what they usually work on or how they approach their job.

Good partners invest time and energy in making cognizant judgments about who their leaders are and what they espouse. Then they take the appropriate action.

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Poorly Fitting Shoes Can Lead to Very Painful Feet

Numerous foot problems, counting hammertoes, blisters, bunions, corns and calluses, heel spurs, claw and mallet toes, ingrown toenails, toenail fungus, and athlete’s foot, can advance due to negligence, ill-fitting shoes, and simple wear and tear.

Age and weight may add to your discomfort, but in many cases, poorly fitting shoes can be the perpetrator. Your health care provider can corroborate what’s instigating the pain-bunions, hammertoes, calluses or corns, fallen arches—if you don’t already know.

Poorly fitting shoes are painful and can promote foot problems.

Poorly Fitting Shoes Promote Foot Problems

The foot is a complicated structure of 26 bones and 33 joints, layered with an interweaving web of more than 120 muscles, ligaments, and nerves. It assists the following purposes: supports weight, acts as a shock absorber, serves as a lever to push the leg forward, and assists preserve balance by correcting the body to jagged surfaces.

Poorly fitting shoes are a recurrent source of foot pain. High-heeled shoes converge pressure on the toes and can worsen, if not cause, problems with the toes.

If your job or way of life requires a lot of standing, invest in some good shoes. Lack of support denotes that the force from your foot hitting the ground gets engrossed in your feet, knees, hips, and back.

For some people, an over-the-counter orthotic insert can aid to align the feet. Having something that helps maintain your foot in a more neutral position, like an arch support, can keep the muscle exhaustion from showing up in the feet and elsewhere. These are the shoe mistakes that can activate aches and pains.

Shoe and Sole Mistakes That Are Killing Your Feet

Shoe and Sole Mistakes That Are Killing Your Feet

Forefoot abnormalities due to ill-fitting shoes are predominant, especially among women. Ill fitted footwear is the cause of up to 75% of all foot surgeries, while forefoot pressure from high heels typically leads to pain, bunions, hammer toes and neuromas. To lessen the incidence of foot problems, patients must learn to measure their own feet and to buy footwear consistent with their fit and not their size. When purchasing shoes with high heels, a style with a rounded and roomier toe box must be selected. Foot problems can also be stopped by decreasing the time spent sporting high heels.

  • Wear comfortable, correctly fitting shoes. Look for ones with decent arch support and cushioning.
  • Wear shoes with acceptable room around the ball of your foot and toes and avoid narrow-toed shoes and high heels.
  • Lose weight if you need to.
  • Wear running shoes designed for comfort and support as much as conceivable, and change them when they wear out.
  • Keep your feet dry to circumvent friction. This may help avert corns and calluses.
  • Learn exercises to reinforce your feet and avoid pain. This can help flat feet and other foot problems.

Select and wear the right shoe for particular activities (such as running shoes for running). All together, the best shoes are well cushioned and have a leather upper, stiff heel counter, and stretchy area at the ball of the foot. The heel area should be sturdy and supportive, but not too stiff, and the front of the shoe should be flexible. New shoes should feel relaxed right away, without a breaking-in period. Alternate shoes. Don’t wear the same pair of shoes every day.

Dangers of Ill Fitting Shoes

Dangers of Ill Fitting Shoes

To ease general distress, apply ice to diminish pain and swelling. Also, raise or soak your painful foot or feet. Wear foot pads in zones of friction or pressure to prevent rubbing and irritation. When standing in one place for a while, sporadically flex your feet to rest them.

Wear shoes with arch support. Some podiatrists reason that it plays a crucial role in amending the configuration of some people’s feet, and some think its only rationale is augmented comfort. One thing to be sure of is that it can’t hurt, specifically if you do have an exclusively high arch or an principally flat foot. If you’re feeling any steady discomfort in your foot, talk to a podiatrist about getting over-the-counter or custom insoles for your shoes. At the least, they’ll make your everyday life and all the walking that comes with it marginally more comfortable. Don’t miss these signs of disease your feet can reveal.

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The Four Noble Truths in Buddhism

Buddha Statue at Borobodur Temple in Indonesia

Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, taught that the Buddhist path to enlightenment lies in freedom from desire.

According to traditional biographies, Siddhartha Gautama (c. 563-483 BCE) was a prince from northern India who renounced his privileged life to seek spiritual awakening. At first he followed the ascetic tradition of Indian holy men, mortifying the flesh with extreme fasting and other hardships. After seven years of such striving, and now so emaciated as to be barely alive, he came to sit under the Bodhi Tree at Gaya. One evening, he accepted a little nourishing food, relaxed, and felt a profound change overtake him. After sitting through the night, at dawn he achieved a state of perfect understanding, becoming a Buddha (enlightened one).

Siddhartha’s insight into the nature of reality was later formulated as the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism.

  • 'Buddhism in Practice' by Donald S. Lopez Jr. (ISBN 0691129681) The first truth is that life, as usually lived, is suffering “Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering.” The Pali Canon of Buddhist scriptures (duhkha)-frustration of desire, losing what we want, having to live with what we do not want.
  • The second truth is that suffering results from clinging to the illusory things of the world with desire or hatred, striving for one or fleeing another.
  • The third truth spells out the solution: the achievement of nirvana, the state of enlightenment in which the world can be seen for the delusion that it is. Freedom from illusion will mean freedom from attachment to illusory desires.
  • The final truth sets out the practical path to enlightenment dharma—including right understanding, right speech, right action, and right concentration.

In the context of the traditional Indian belief in reincarnation, nirvana is seen as the escape from the endless cycle of death and rebirth. Freedom is found in the realization that even the self is an illusion.

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Use Facilitative Leadership to Transform Your Organization

Facilitative Leadership Style

'The Facilitative Leadership That Makes the Difference' by Priscilla H. Wilson (ISBN 097297640X) Facilitative leadership is not about leading by committee or getting everyone together and asking, “What do you and you think?” Committee can decide not everything. The front lines are not the place to take a straw poll. Even so, there are times when a leader can, and should, get people together to talk about how to improve operations and ask for input. That is facilitative leadership.

For this process to work, leaders must create a culture where people not only feel comfortable contributing ideas and suggestions, but where leaders act on those inputs.

Facilitative Leadership Theory

Acting on input does not mean doing everything the group tells you to do. It means making it clear to the group that their input is valued by defining how that input will be used. Many times a leader gives the impression that if the team members give honest input, they will be punished. This is why the leader must clarify how the input will be used before asking for input.

For instance, let the group know if you are:

  • Just asking for ideas and you, the leader, will make the final decision,
  • Asking for ideas and you, the leader, will discuss options with the group before making the final decision,
  • Requesting input so the final decision will be made together as a team,
  • Requiring input, and the team will make the final decision after reviewing it with you, and,
  • Giving input to the team and the team will tell you what the final decision is.

Facilitative Leadership Style

Facilitative Leadership Style

These are examples of how to explain your intentions when involving direct reports in decision-making. Clarity builds respect, trust, and rapport.

'The Practice of Facilitative Leadership' by Ken Todd Williams (ISBN 1523693908) The role of the leader is changing. Once, the leader stood in the middle of everything and directed the team with one-way communication. The leader would say, “Jump,” and followers would only ask, “How high?” As leaders progress, they allow for two- way communication, but they are still in the middle directing the activities. Then, as leaders continue to progress, they step out of the middle and become a part of the team. The leaders are still responsible, but they do not push their people—they tend to pull, to get people to follow them—not to push and micro-manage them.

As leaders progress even more, they can step away from the day-to-day management. This affords even more communication among the members of the team. Again, you cannot do this until you help the team members interact with each other on a level playing field. You can then be free to work on the strategic elements of your job.

These skills are becoming more critical because the leader’s span at control is expanding!

Now, when you step away, you do not disengage! You cannot expect what you do not inspect. So you must be accessible, continue to coach, and have the courage to hold people accountable and not fold under pressure. Suppose, for example, that you have been coaching a direct report on an important project. The project does not reach its target. Your boss calls you in and asks, “What happened?” You might explain how you have been coaching a member of your team who let you down; but you need the courage to also say, “I am responsible, and I will make sure that it doesn’t happen again.” You are ultimately responsible for your group’s performance!

Now, you will want to talk with that direct report about what happened. Clearly, you need to revisit the miscues. It is the employee’s responsibility to achieve the goals, but you need to ensure your people are on-track.

Characteristics of Facilitative Leaders

Characteristics of Facilitative Leaders

Facilitative leaders listen to multiple points of view, including those they do not agree with. This enables them to make better decisions. Facilitative leaders capture the key kernels of information, build bridges between people, and create an atmosphere where people share information.

When you master these skills, you become a facilitative leader. The need for greater collaboration comes at a time when the diversity of perspectives, talents, and cultures present in the workplace is increasing. Achieving better results by tapping into this mix is a goal that can be accomplished through effective application of facilitative leadership fundamentals.

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Best Practices for Corporate Boards & Governance

Best Practices for Corporate Boards & Governance

In the wake of many business failures, we have criticized every player in the system except the one charged with insuring that these failures do not occur: the board of directors. They are elected by the shareholders as the ultimate governing body and charged with preserving the company and building it long term.

Many boards have abandoned the legal and fiduciary responsibilities. They have become more responsive to the CEO and the management than to the shareholders. In so doing, they abandon their governance role to get the company’s stock price up. They stop asking the hard questions about how the company achieves its numbers, whether it makes adequate investments to build for the long-term and whether its strategies are still valid and effectively implemented.

Our systems of governance must be reformed. This begins with having a “bright line” between governance and management. Boards have ceded their governance responsibilities to the CEO. Now they must reclaim it.

Here is a 10-step program to improve board governance:

  1. Create principles of governance. The independent directors of the board need to establish principles of governance that describe the functions of the board and how the board will conduct itself. The principles should be published for all shareholders to see, and each year the board should report to the shareholders, evaluating the effectiveness of these principles.
  2. Have truly independent directors. This is essential to effective governance. Boards need directors who have had no prior association with the company. To measure their independence, no director should receive any compensation other than standard board fees. Nor should any interlocking directorates be permitted between the CEO and any member.
  3. Select board members more for their values than their titles. Too often we choose directors for the positions they hold, rather than their commitment, availability, and competence as board the many member. Let’s take advantage of executives who have the time and inclination to serve on boards. Let’s also assess the diversity of backgrounds and experience we need on the board to provide sound guidance.
  4. Establish a Governance and Nominating Committee composed solely of outside directors. This committee maintains the principles of governance, nominates people for election to the board, evaluates existing directors, conducts the evaluation of the chairperson and the CEO, and develops a succession plan for the CEO, including the selection of new CEOs. This committee is charged with organizing the board and its committees, identifying independent directors to chair them.
  5. Elect a Lead Director. If one person is both chair and CEO, the independent directors must elect a lead director to organize them, insure their independence, and advise the CEO. I prefer that the lead director be the chair of the governance committee, as these functions are closely aligned.
  6. Corporate Boards oversee governance and management Qualify members of the Audit and Finance Committees to insure the veracity of the financial statements. These committees should meet privately with external auditors, the CFO, and internal auditors. Outside auditors should not receive any additional consulting fees from the company.
  7. Hire an independent compensation consultant. Neither the CEO nor any member of management should be involved in setting the CEO’s compensation, or board fees. My big concern with executive compensation is the grants made by compensation committees to executives who do not perform or who are terminated. These moves destroy the integrity of incentive systems. At the executive level, it should be “pay for performance.” Period.
  8. Meet regularly in executive sessions. This works best if the board meeting begins in executive session with the CEO, and concludes with an executive session without the CEO present. These sessions are much more open and often lead to rich discussions of the most vital issues. Of course, the lead director must convey the essence of the discussion to the CEO.
  9. Seek the right Board chemistry. Board members should respect each other, but not hesitate to challenge each other, the CEO, and members of management. At times, a single director must stand against management and the rest of the board if he or she feels that the company is headed in the wrong direction. Board knowledge and chemistry can be enhanced with off site visits to company locations and one extended meeting per year, preferably off-site, to review the company’s strategies in depth. These longer sessions give independent directors deeper insights into the business, and build relationships that are vital in crises.
  10. Reestablish the bright line between governance and management. Directors must step up to their responsibilities and establish that bright line between governance and management. Will this reduce the power of the CEO to manage the company? No. The best CEOs want to have a strong, independent board, and look to the board for advice and counsel, not just approval, on important matters. Having a clear line between will keep the board from usurping the CEO’s prerogatives just as it will constrain management. This will help restore the balance to decision-making and ensure stability.

To transform our systems of government, businesses, and non-profits, we need courageous, authentic, and visionary leaders and directors, not just people who react to events.

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