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What Makes an Introvert

Myths about Introversion

5 Myths about Introversion

Extraverted managers can be a obligation if the followers are extroverts, tending not to be amenable to employees who make suggestions and take initiative. Introverted managers are more likely to listen to, process, and execute the ideas of an eager team. This is well aligned with the advanced leadership skill of coaching (defined as asking thought provoking questions and then truly listening to the response). Whether introverted or extraverted, a manager who has the discipline to listen to what others has to say will engage a larger percentage of employees. Many introverts find it simpler to listen than extraverts. But it certainly is a skill that can be taught, trained and institutionalized.

'Introvert Power' by Laurie Helgoe (ISBN 1402280882) The greatest leaders are those who are able to leverage the talents of the people around them and raise each person to function closer to or at their full potential. Other critical attributes to leadership—authenticity, self-awareness and emotional intelligence—also have nothing to do with introversion or extroversion.

  • Myth #1: Being Introverted is the same as Being Shy: While there may be a number of introverts who are shy, there are also a number of extroverts who are shy. There is no absolute association. Introverts are not necessarily shy. Shy people are anxious or frightened or self-excoriating in social settings; introverts generally are not. Introverts are also not misanthropic, though some of us do go along with Sartre as far as to say “Hell is other people at breakfast.” Rather, introverts are people who find other people tiring.
  • Myth #2: Introverts are Socially Inept or Anxious in Social Situations: Again, while this may be true for some introverts, this can also be true for extroverts and is not directly related to one’s introversion. Extroverts therefore dominate public life. This is a pity. If we introverts ran the world, it would no doubt be a calmer, saner, more peaceful sort of place. Some people even describe themselves as ambiverts, smack-dab in the middle. Regardless of where you fall in this spectrum, it helps to be aware of how you operate and can best interact with others.
  • Myth #3: If I am Fearful of Public Speaking I Must be an Introvert: Studies show the fear of public speaking is the top fear people face, and that 75% of persons experience speaking apprehension. Yet less than half of all people are introverts. Again, there is no direct correlation and this affects extroverts in the same way it involves introverts. People will often use the word “introvert” as shorthand for a variety of negative stereotypes: loner, shy, socially awkward, wallflower, misanthrope. Of course, it’s possible for an introvert to be any of those things, but the same is true for an extrovert.
  • Myth #4: Introverts Have Communication Challenges and Difficulty Knowing What to Say: This is social anxiety, not introversion. If you research social anxiety you do not find references to introversion as a cause. The trick for introverts is to honour their styles instead of allowing themselves to be swept up by prevailing norms.
  • Myth #5: If You Act Like an Extrovert You Can “Overcome” Introversion: The truth is best summed up by an email I received from a companion executive: “I have spent the better part of a 10-year career turning introversion into extroversion via the same technique used by people to heal bad posture—over correct it long enough and the correct posture becomes natural. This approach was certainly unforgettable but I made a fool of myself more times than I can remember, which is not conducive to long-term connections.” Because of the more reserved, private nature of introverts, people can also think they’re aloof or arrogant.

Introverted managers work against their type in order to fit in with their extroverted colleagues. Not only do individual leaders suffer the energy drains of pretending to be more extroverted but also businesses miss out many of on the contributions that come directly from the introverted qualities they do have.

Ray Williams, a well-known executive trainer and leadership guide in Canada, observes how the introvert—extrovert gulf manipulates our standpoint toward leaders:

Movies, television and the news media have significantly influenced our popular images of leaders—from Clint Eastwood, to Jim Carey, Larry Ellison, and Donald Trump—for the past three decades. This stereotypical view of charismatic, extroverted individuals, often egocentric and aggressive, has been associated with what we want and expect in our leaders. Our culture, particularly in business and politics, seems to be in love with the charismatic leader—the guns blazing, no-holds barred, center-of-attention leader, who is a super-confident if not arrogant, aggressively decisive leader of a band of star-struck followers …. The status and reputation of quiet, introverted leadership is undervalued and under-appreciated. Despite decades of research on leadership pointing to other less demonstrative skills that are needed, extroverts are still favored in recruiting and promoting decisions. Yet recent research reveals that introverted, quiet leaders may be more suited for today’s workplace. If you want an example of a successful introverted leader, you need look no further than Warren Buffett.

What Makes an Introvert

What Makes an Introvert

'Quiet The Power of Introverts' by Susan Cain (ISBN 0803740603) Introverts’ listening skills can be an asset when leading teams. Making sure everyone feels heard, Yeager said, is a good way to secure buy-in. When you’re trying to gain consensus, give everyone the opportunity to voice their opinion. People will be more likely to go along with your decision, even if it’s not the option they preferred, if they feel like they were heard. Susan Cain in ‘Quiet The Power of Introverts’:

Solitude is out of fashion. Our companies, our schools and our culture are in thrall to an idea I call the New Groupthink, which holds that creativity and achievement come from an oddly gregarious place. Most of us now work in teams, in offices without walls, for managers who prize people skills above all. Lone geniuses are out. Collaboration is in…. This has led to a colossal waste of talent, energy, and happiness.

  • Careful thinkers who look before they leap
  • Usually only speak when they have something to say, after processing internally
  • Comfort with independent thought and action
  • Feel at their most alive and energized in quiet situations
  • Need solitude to balance out social time
  • Active inner life, imagination and a strong creative streak
  • Steady, balanced presence during turbulent times
  • Sharp observational skills
  • Capacity for active listening and connecting on an intimate level
  • Willing to put other people and their vision in the spotlight
  • Desire for focus and to develop a depth of understanding/mastery over a topic

Common Myths About Introverts

Some Common Myths About Introverts

'The Introvert Entrepreneur' by Beth Buelow (ISBN 0399174834) Though introverts may have a more reserved leadership style than extroverts, they possess many qualities that make them good leaders. Their capacity for listening and reflection, for instance, helps them forge strong relationships with colleagues and clients. Introverts have the ability to really take in what people are saying, process it, and come back to it in a meaningful way.

  • They are shy or antisocial. There are “social introverts” who are drawn to people byt need a higher ratio of solitude to social time. There are also those who more closely match the stereotypes of a strong loner.
  • They make poor leaders, and are best suited for jobs that limit contact with people. In fact, research shows introverted leaders often out-perform extroverted ones.
  • They’re always quiet and don’t talk
  • They’re depressed
  • They’re all bookworms and nerds
  • They’re arrogant, aloof or stuck up

It’s important for introverts to be strategic about how they use their time and energy. Decide in advance who you want to meet and which events you want to attend. Set a goal such as having lunch with a certain number of people this quarter. What I’ve learned is that I don’t have to talk to everyone in the room. Having two to four good, meaningful conversations is enough.

Establish an introvert-friendly environment:

  • Stop prejudging.
  • Learn the strengths and weaknesses of both.
  • Exploit strengths.
  • Find solutions as teams.
  • Give introverts emotional and physical space. Allow for pauses.
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Customer Satisfaction Begins with Employee Engagement

The quickest ticket to customer satisfaction is through dependable, excellent service. As companies contend for competitive advantage, many find that refining service quality and customer satisfaction can be intangible. The first step to realizing both is to raise employee engagement.

'180 Ways To Build Employee Engagement' by Brian Gareau, Al Lucia (ISBN 193553792X) All organizations benefit from having an engaged workforce. But for those whose success pivots on delivering excellent customer service, a superior kind of employee engagement, customer-focused engagement, has an even tougher effect. Customer- focused engagement occurs when employee work groups are committed to (and passionate about) producing excellent service to their customers.

Employees won’t become engaged with service quality just because you demand them to. It takes time and effort to nurture an environment where engagement can set in and grow. With the right leadership, resources and information, you can shape the environment to engage employees and focus their efforts where it matters most—on customer satisfaction.

Correlation Between Employee Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction

Evidence for Employee Engagement for Customer Satisfaction

Will an investment in employee engagement pay for itself through increased customer satisfaction?

We gauged satisfaction levels of 50 firms using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). To measure customer-focused engagement, we probed employees to rate elements like, “We help customers beyond what is required,” and “The norm here is to help customers.”

'The Employee Engagement Mindset' by Timothy R. Clark (ISBN 0071788298) When we charted the employee survey results for each company against ASCI score for that company, we discovered that the higher the level of customer-focused engagement, the better the score on customer satisfaction. Actually, we see an absolute correlation between employee engagement and customer satisfaction. When you enhance customer-focused engagement, you will increase customer satisfaction.

Companies whose employees are highly engaged with customer service are rated the highest in customer satisfaction. Raising customer-focused employee engagement translates into dollars on the bottom line, possibly a lot of dollars. A mere one-point rise in your ASCI score can boost your ROI by an average of 11.4 percent!

What Gets Measured Gets Attention

Prior to you can increase engagement, you first must gage it. An precise measure of employee engagement requires a special survey—not the employee satisfaction survey. There is a distinction between employee satisfaction and engagement.

  • Satisfied employees feel enjoyable, satisfied, content, and comfortable. And they tend to have low absence, low turnover, and low substance abuse. But they may be neither engaged nor driven to expend extra effort in their work or for customers.
  • In contrast, engaged employees perform in ways that enhance the customer experience. They go the extra mile in the interest of service quality and customer satisfaction. When your customers receive superior service every day, it can have a spectacular impact on your financial health.

Engaged employees (focused on customers) feel fervent about providing excellent service, energized by helping customers, involved in their work, trusting of their manager. They feel safe to make decisions, take risks, or speak up with worries. They are committed to the goal of providing service excellence. They create relationships with customers, not just fill orders; anticipate customer needs; support coworkers so that they can provide service excellence; take initiative to ensure consistent service; and find answers to customer questions.

Creating Employee Engagement for Customer Satisfaction

Creating Employee Engagement for Customer Satisfaction

Engaging employees is not simply a matter of telling them what to do. The way to change someone’s work performance is to first change the way they feel about their jobs. Tailor your programs around six areas:

  1. Job design. When jobs are thought-provoking and allow employees to use all of their talents, they feel involved. Time passes quickly, and effort required to do the work is easy to give. Engagement is high when employees are working to achieve detailed difficult goals—goals they accept as judicious and attainable, but ones that also provide a “stretch.”
  2. Immediate managers. Managers play a big role in how employees feel about their jobs. Impartiality and trust shown to the employees by their managers will create a culture of engagement in the work group, ensuring a collective, organized effort in serving customers.
  3. Service message. Most of the service message employees receive comes from cues from their immediate manager as to what is important. Managers must recognize and strengthen service excellence, ensure that obstacles to excellence are removed, and set goals for service excellence. Without everything employees experience focuses their efforts on service quality and customer satisfaction, customer satisfaction likely won’t emerge.
  4. Resources. When employees feel they have the resources they need to do their jobs well, they are more involved in their customer service.
  5. HR policies. Organizations that ensure their HR management systems promote customer satisfaction—who gets hired, how they are trained, what is measured in performance management—produce customer-focused engagement.
  6. Benchmarking. You need baseline knowledge about employee engagement levels and customer satisfaction before you make changes. Use surveys and other assessment tools to measure employee engagement occasionally to evaluate progress.

Employee engagement has become such a hot theme that great groups of consultants and authors are undeniably banging on your door as we speak, armed with sufficient action plans and PowerPoint presentations to make your head spin. When employees are satisfied and engaged, the outcome is deeper customer connections and an raised customer experience.

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Create Partners, Not Employees or Followers

People want to succeed. The vast majority want to feel good about themselves and their work. Nevertheless, sometimes, it is tremendously difficult to balance day-to-day duties with the emotional needs of your employees.

There are no quick fixes or simple formulas for generating a culture that unleashes the competency of people. It occasionally requires intervention into a number of dimensions of organizational life: challenging management philosophy and practices, communicating and aligning everyone to the business strategy, cultivating processes and systems, providing training in social and business skills, etc.

Whom would you rather have at your side in a tough spot? A partner who shares full responsibility for decisions and their outcomes? Alternatively, a subordinate who does just what you say and shuts up about ideas he has that may be better.

Rationally, you want the former; emotionally, you may choose the latter. Leaders bow to a multitude of short-term pressures: severe demands for quarterly earnings, risk aversion, distress with uncertainty, resistance to change, linear extrapolation from past experience, and reluctance to cannibalize established businesses.

'It's Okay to Be the Boss' by Bruce Tulgan (ISBN 0061121363) Reflect on your career. Have you ever kept quiet when superiors were creating problems? What caused you to withhold your counsel?

I guarantee you they were being “the boss.” Everything about their tone, body language, verbal language, and behavior was indicating you that they were the boss and you were the subordinate. Chances are you learned from them what a boss looks and sounds like. Whether you admired their style or not, some of it rubbed off on you.

When you act as a superior, you will have subordinates. Act as a partner, and you will have partners. Yes, you may be the senior partner, but they are still partners, not underlings, or subordinates.

One key dissimilarity between the behavior of a “boss” and a “partner” is the way you talk. You talk differently to partners. It is not just what you say, but how you say it. To a subordinate, you might say, “This client wants his order fulfilled now. Make it happen.”

What is the message? It is not just “Get the order done now,” but it is also “I’m the boss; this is what I want—and there could be outcomes if I don’t get it.” It does not require a dramatic act to make the point that the receiver is your subordinate. Are you aware of how often and in how many ways you send similar messages?

This is not how you would talk to a partner. You might be just as clear about what you want and when; however, your delivery would create partnership, not subservience. You might ask, “How can we do that?” Alternatively, “Can you make it happen?” You would seek the individual’s knowledge, responsibility, and mutual obligation. When employees are seen as partners, they will understand that their leaders do not simply see them as the means to achieve their own personal targets.

You talk differently to folks below you than to folks across from or above you. So what? The higher you go, the less direct experience you have of customers, stakeholders, and problems. It is harder to get a real feel for what is happening. You become more reliant on on good information and insight from those who are in touch. So, they need to feel invited to tell you the reality they see, especially when it differs from the one you believe is out there.

You likely think that you already extend this encouragement, but you may discourage people from giving you inconvenient information. Unless you make an effort to discover in what ways you do this, you will continue to do so.

Create Partners with Your Subordinates

Create Partners with Your Subordinates

To create partners and have your employees’ best interests in mind, try this exercise:

  • Start every meeting with a question: “Is there anything I’m not getting about this issue that you think I should?”
  • Whatever the answer, respond with interest and ask, “Can you tell me more about that or give an example to help me understand it better?”
  • Ask questions until you have clarity on the points. Do not argue. Do not cross-examine—just clarify.
  • Thank the individual or group making these points.
  • Incorporate what makes sense into the decisions.
  • If no one spoke up, after the meeting ask the individual who is likely to be forthright, “What am I doing that keeps everyone from talking?”
  • If this individual gives you insight into how you dissuade feedback, convey your gratefulness. Find a way to reward the honesty.
  • Invite this truth-teller to sit in on more meetings and after each one gives you feedback on anything you did that made others act as subordinates.

Simple Ways to Build Trust With Your Employees

Build Trust with Your Employees

Trust is established when even the newest rookie, a part-timer, or the lowest paid employee feels important and part of the team. This begins with management not being reserved, as well as getting out and meeting the troops.

'The 27 Challenges Managers Face' by Bruce Tulgan (ISBN 111872559X) By doing this you will have the self-awareness to create partners. You will also have earned their trust. They will give you their best advice and devotedly support decisions that are based on reality.

By creating this environment where your employees are treated as partners working toward a shared purpose, you will foster in your employees a sense of ownership not simply to their job, but to the whole process. This will inspire not only partnership between the company’s divisions/teams, but it will also help nurture innovation as employees are stimulated to look beyond what they usually work on or how they approach their job.

Good partners invest time and energy in making cognizant judgments about who their leaders are and what they espouse. Then they take the appropriate action.

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Use Facilitative Leadership to Transform Your Organization

Facilitative Leadership Style

'The Facilitative Leadership That Makes the Difference' by Priscilla H. Wilson (ISBN 097297640X) Facilitative leadership is not about leading by committee or getting everyone together and asking, “What do you and you think?” Committee can decide not everything. The front lines are not the place to take a straw poll. Even so, there are times when a leader can, and should, get people together to talk about how to improve operations and ask for input. That is facilitative leadership.

For this process to work, leaders must create a culture where people not only feel comfortable contributing ideas and suggestions, but where leaders act on those inputs.

Facilitative Leadership Theory

Acting on input does not mean doing everything the group tells you to do. It means making it clear to the group that their input is valued by defining how that input will be used. Many times a leader gives the impression that if the team members give honest input, they will be punished. This is why the leader must clarify how the input will be used before asking for input.

For instance, let the group know if you are:

  • Just asking for ideas and you, the leader, will make the final decision,
  • Asking for ideas and you, the leader, will discuss options with the group before making the final decision,
  • Requesting input so the final decision will be made together as a team,
  • Requiring input, and the team will make the final decision after reviewing it with you, and,
  • Giving input to the team and the team will tell you what the final decision is.

Facilitative Leadership Style

Facilitative Leadership Style

These are examples of how to explain your intentions when involving direct reports in decision-making. Clarity builds respect, trust, and rapport.

'The Practice of Facilitative Leadership' by Ken Todd Williams (ISBN 1523693908) The role of the leader is changing. Once, the leader stood in the middle of everything and directed the team with one-way communication. The leader would say, “Jump,” and followers would only ask, “How high?” As leaders progress, they allow for two- way communication, but they are still in the middle directing the activities. Then, as leaders continue to progress, they step out of the middle and become a part of the team. The leaders are still responsible, but they do not push their people—they tend to pull, to get people to follow them—not to push and micro-manage them.

As leaders progress even more, they can step away from the day-to-day management. This affords even more communication among the members of the team. Again, you cannot do this until you help the team members interact with each other on a level playing field. You can then be free to work on the strategic elements of your job.

These skills are becoming more critical because the leader’s span at control is expanding!

Now, when you step away, you do not disengage! You cannot expect what you do not inspect. So you must be accessible, continue to coach, and have the courage to hold people accountable and not fold under pressure. Suppose, for example, that you have been coaching a direct report on an important project. The project does not reach its target. Your boss calls you in and asks, “What happened?” You might explain how you have been coaching a member of your team who let you down; but you need the courage to also say, “I am responsible, and I will make sure that it doesn’t happen again.” You are ultimately responsible for your group’s performance!

Now, you will want to talk with that direct report about what happened. Clearly, you need to revisit the miscues. It is the employee’s responsibility to achieve the goals, but you need to ensure your people are on-track.

Characteristics of Facilitative Leaders

Characteristics of Facilitative Leaders

Facilitative leaders listen to multiple points of view, including those they do not agree with. This enables them to make better decisions. Facilitative leaders capture the key kernels of information, build bridges between people, and create an atmosphere where people share information.

When you master these skills, you become a facilitative leader. The need for greater collaboration comes at a time when the diversity of perspectives, talents, and cultures present in the workplace is increasing. Achieving better results by tapping into this mix is a goal that can be accomplished through effective application of facilitative leadership fundamentals.

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Best Practices for Corporate Boards & Governance

Best Practices for Corporate Boards & Governance

In the wake of many business failures, we have criticized every player in the system except the one charged with insuring that these failures do not occur: the board of directors. They are elected by the shareholders as the ultimate governing body and charged with preserving the company and building it long term.

Many boards have abandoned the legal and fiduciary responsibilities. They have become more responsive to the CEO and the management than to the shareholders. In so doing, they abandon their governance role to get the company’s stock price up. They stop asking the hard questions about how the company achieves its numbers, whether it makes adequate investments to build for the long-term and whether its strategies are still valid and effectively implemented.

Our systems of governance must be reformed. This begins with having a “bright line” between governance and management. Boards have ceded their governance responsibilities to the CEO. Now they must reclaim it.

Here is a 10-step program to improve board governance:

  1. Create principles of governance. The independent directors of the board need to establish principles of governance that describe the functions of the board and how the board will conduct itself. The principles should be published for all shareholders to see, and each year the board should report to the shareholders, evaluating the effectiveness of these principles.
  2. Have truly independent directors. This is essential to effective governance. Boards need directors who have had no prior association with the company. To measure their independence, no director should receive any compensation other than standard board fees. Nor should any interlocking directorates be permitted between the CEO and any member.
  3. Select board members more for their values than their titles. Too often we choose directors for the positions they hold, rather than their commitment, availability, and competence as board the many member. Let’s take advantage of executives who have the time and inclination to serve on boards. Let’s also assess the diversity of backgrounds and experience we need on the board to provide sound guidance.
  4. Establish a Governance and Nominating Committee composed solely of outside directors. This committee maintains the principles of governance, nominates people for election to the board, evaluates existing directors, conducts the evaluation of the chairperson and the CEO, and develops a succession plan for the CEO, including the selection of new CEOs. This committee is charged with organizing the board and its committees, identifying independent directors to chair them.
  5. Elect a Lead Director. If one person is both chair and CEO, the independent directors must elect a lead director to organize them, insure their independence, and advise the CEO. I prefer that the lead director be the chair of the governance committee, as these functions are closely aligned.
  6. Corporate Boards oversee governance and management Qualify members of the Audit and Finance Committees to insure the veracity of the financial statements. These committees should meet privately with external auditors, the CFO, and internal auditors. Outside auditors should not receive any additional consulting fees from the company.
  7. Hire an independent compensation consultant. Neither the CEO nor any member of management should be involved in setting the CEO’s compensation, or board fees. My big concern with executive compensation is the grants made by compensation committees to executives who do not perform or who are terminated. These moves destroy the integrity of incentive systems. At the executive level, it should be “pay for performance.” Period.
  8. Meet regularly in executive sessions. This works best if the board meeting begins in executive session with the CEO, and concludes with an executive session without the CEO present. These sessions are much more open and often lead to rich discussions of the most vital issues. Of course, the lead director must convey the essence of the discussion to the CEO.
  9. Seek the right Board chemistry. Board members should respect each other, but not hesitate to challenge each other, the CEO, and members of management. At times, a single director must stand against management and the rest of the board if he or she feels that the company is headed in the wrong direction. Board knowledge and chemistry can be enhanced with off site visits to company locations and one extended meeting per year, preferably off-site, to review the company’s strategies in depth. These longer sessions give independent directors deeper insights into the business, and build relationships that are vital in crises.
  10. Reestablish the bright line between governance and management. Directors must step up to their responsibilities and establish that bright line between governance and management. Will this reduce the power of the CEO to manage the company? No. The best CEOs want to have a strong, independent board, and look to the board for advice and counsel, not just approval, on important matters. Having a clear line between will keep the board from usurping the CEO’s prerogatives just as it will constrain management. This will help restore the balance to decision-making and ensure stability.

To transform our systems of government, businesses, and non-profits, we need courageous, authentic, and visionary leaders and directors, not just people who react to events.

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Books on Creativity Recommended by Ted Leonsis

Creative people often retain a capability to adopt a number of diverse stances or perspectives. When they look at their own work, they focus interchangeably on the technical aspects, the visual design, the ideas, and so on. They develop a set of standards or a checklist that leads their attention and helps them to scrutinize the creative process. Moreover, they master a lexis that enables them to assess their work in multiple dimensions, so that they can pass more qualified judgements than just ‘good’ or ‘bad.’

A multidimensional valuation gives students feedback, which helps them determine their strengths and detect areas in which they need to improve. The scores on such valuations can also help an educational program to review its results, contemplate its position and modify the course if necessary. Although creativity can only make the most of as originality, utility, and surprise all approach unity, the same description indicates that there are seven different ways that creativity can minimize. These alternatives were identified as

  • routine, reproductive, or habitual ideas,
  • accidental response bias,
  • irrational perseveration,
  • problem finding,
  • rational suppression,
  • irrational suppression, and
  • blissful ignorance.

According to conventional wisdom, creativity is somewhat done by creative people. Even creativity researchers, for several decades, seemed to direct their work by this principle, converging predominantly on individual differences: What are creative people like, and how are they different from most people in the world? Although this person-centered tactic yielded some important findings about the backgrounds, personality traits, and work styles of marvelously creative people, it was both limited and limiting. It presented little to practitioners related with helping people to become more creative in their work, and it virtually ignored the role of the social environment in creativity and innovation. In contrast to the long-established approach, the Componential Theory of Creativity assumes that all humans with normal capabilities are able to produce at least judiciously creative work in some domain, some of the time-and that the social environment (the work environment) can manipulate both the level and the incidence of creative behavior.

Books on Creativity Recommended by Ted Leonsis Ted Leonsis, the Internet entrepreneur, former AOL senior executive, and owner of the Washington Wizards and Washington Capitals recommends the following books on creativity.

  • Ed Catmull’s Creativity : 1970s computer animation pioneer and Pixar co-founder Ed Catmull‘s appealingly comprehensive explanation of how the studio he co-founded generated hits such as the Toy Story trilogy, Up, and Wall-E. Catmull closes that it is a leader’s responsibility to stop ambitious and perfectionist staff destroying their health and that of others. Aiming for zero mistakes is the worst possible goal for a creative project. He argues that a company has to appreciate the work of creativity and learn how to navigate the failures that will happen along the way.
  • 'Crossing the Chasm' by Geoffrey A. Moore (ISBN 0062292986) Geoffrey A. Moore’s Crossing the Chasm: Author Geoffrey A. Moore is managing partner of TCG Advisors, a consulting practice that delivers business and marketing strategy assistances to well-known high-technology companies. Moore declared that the greatest change in the marketing approach happens at the chasm—the organizations to the right of the chasm have meaningfully different opportunities than those on the left. Many ideas fail in the marketplace because their enthusiasts are not capable to cross the chasm.
  • Elmira Bayrasli’s From the Other Side of the World: Journalist Elmira Bayrasli posits that brilliant people around the world are conquering insoluble obstacles to build high-growth businesses that are driving wealth and building communities, regions and countries. By means of seven noteworthy stories, Bayrasli shows the next set of successful entrepreneurs could come not only from the as Silicon Valley but also from Nigeria, Pakistan or Mexico. She writes, “Entrepreneurs, by the very nature of what they do—disrupt and innovate—provide a necessary check and balance on government that no one else can—not businesspeople, not NGOs, not civil society organizations. They help remake the social order and help move progress forward, giving rise to new ideas, new industries, and new possibilities and forcing change. That is what has made them both heroes and villains that many in power feel the need to keep in check.”
  • 'Stop Playing Safe' by Margie Warrell (ISBN 1118505581) Margie Warrell’s Stop Playing Safe: When people confront a challenge, they often recoil into inaction. Drawing from the latest research plus dialogues with highly successful leaders and entrepreneurs, Warrell offers practical tools and inspiration needed to enjoy greater confidence, accomplishment and success in work and life. Outline your sense of purpose and engage in more inspiring goals. Circumnavigate uncertainty with clarity and be more decisive in adversity. Surmount the fear of failure and bounce back from setbacks with superior flexibility. Toughen your leadership ability and expand your influence regardless of position. Build a culture of courage in your office that advances bottom line results. As you strive to reach your goals, as you make those tough choices and take risks, look for your enthusiasm, find your power, and aim to make a difference. And know that this attitude—this mindset, this entrepreneurial way of looking at the world—runs though the lives of all successful people.
  • Linda A. Hill, et al.’s Collective Genius: The perpetual organizational challenge is to develop an organization capable of inventing over and over. Outdated, direction-setting leadership can work well when the resolution to a problem is known and forthright. The role of a leader of innovation is not to set a vision and stimulate others to follow it. It’s to create a cooperative spirit that is enthusiastic and capable to innovate. Collective Genius addresses (1) how leaders generate a willingness to do the hard work of innovation, and (2) how leaders can generate the ability to do the hard work of innovation.
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How to Create a Great, Happy, Satisfied Workplace

How to Create a Great Workplace

How does any company, small or large, gain competitive advantage in a crowded and highly competitive marketplace? Instinct tells us to watch what our competitors do and try to the same things better. But, because competitors are also trying to get better, you won’t gain much from that approach. Though counterintuitive and less comfortable, a more productive approach is to be different. By taking that tack, your activities are less likely to end up as commodities, differentiated only by price.

Several companies have taken their basic assets and by rearranging them, have created unique business propositions and a distinctive presence. These companies have made specialization decisions that enabled them to align their assets and activities differently.

First, there is Southwest Airlines. Their strategy is to compete with the automobile as a means of intercity transportation. To that end, they serve short routes with frequent departures. To keep costs low, they limit themselves to one type of aircraft—the Boeing 737. Because they have the industry’s largest 737 fleet, they buy or lease on very attractive terms. Further, they serve no meals, offer no seat assignments, and do not transfer baggage to other airlines. They avoid airports with high landing fees or frequent delays. This enables them to make quicker turns and fly more legs each day, resulting in lower fares. Today they are profitable.

Second, Enterprise Rent-A-Car has shot from relative anonymity to become a leader among car rental companies. They achieved this not by copying Hertz and Avis, but by specializing in a different market. Instead of competing for airport rentals, they aimed at the insurance and car repair markets. They cultivated both by giving superior service and tailoring their activities to individuals who have lost the use of their cars for a period. No one else was doing that.

Edward Jones experience was shaped by just few factors. The first was the insights Ted Jones. Unlike his father, Edward D. Jones Sr., whose vision was to be a department store of finance, offering every product and service, Ted saw a vast underserved market of serious, long-term investors. Instead of offering everything in one market, he wanted to distribute a limited range of highly reliable long-term investments in many markets. His vision was different.

The second factor was the decision in the early 1970s to codify Edward Jones’s beliefs and strategy. Edward Jones had a successful business model with 120 representatives, but also had only $1,005,000 of capital in a business that was based on capital. Edward Jones had to specialize in areas that were not capital intensive.

The thinking of Peter Drucker guided Edward Jones. He teaches that every business must answer three questions:

  1. What is our business?
  2. Who is our customer?
  3. What does the customer consider value?

With so little capital, Edward Jones couldn’t compete for the highly profitable institutional or underwriting business. Knowing it was impossible to do it well, Edward Jones chose not to do it at all. Edward Jones were making trade-offs to align its resources to serve one customer one way. As Michael Porter points out, you define trade-offs not in terms of what you choose to do, but what you choose not to do. At that point, Edward Jones had begun to make ourselves different.

Edward Jones

How to Create a Great Workplace

Here are 10 trade-offs made by Edward Jones. None made was unique. None suggests moral superiority. However, each makes that company a little different and together, they make us so different that few competitors even want to emulate Edward Jones.

  1. Edward Jones’s initial decisions addressed the Drucker questions. Edward Jones were in the securities industry serving the serious, long-term “buy-and-keep” investor. The value Edward Jones sought to add was to help our customers achieve their financial goals through sound advice and a face-to-face personal relationship. In doing so, Edward Jones chose not to serve large institutions, or frequent traders because few, if any, traders are consistently successful over time. Edward Jones chose to forego these markets, one promising large commissions and the other, and frequent commissions. However, they were realistic decisions, knowing that others were not lining up to offer personal service to smaller investors.
  2. If Edward Jones were to serve one customer, Edward Jones felt they should focus on one profit center—the investment representative (IR) who directly serves the customer. They wanted to closely align their activities with their customers’ interest. That notion prohibited profit centers in their trading and syndicate departments. One profit center also meant no manager would get an override commission from the work of their investment representatives. Each of these decisions was at odds with industry practice.
  3. Edward Jones chose not to manufacture its own products. As distributors of a number of mutual funds, it would have been possible to start selling Edward Jones’s own funds. By offering house brands, they would capture the manufacturer’s profit. However, by concentrating on the products offered by preferred vendors, Edward Jones still had the best investment managers working for customers.
  4. Rather than try to lure licensed and trained IRs from competitors, Edward Jones chose to grow its own. Since Edward Jones couldn’t pay competitors’ brokers a bonus to come work for them, Edward Jones dedicated ourselves to on-going training to prepare IRs to serve one type of customer—the individual investor, one way—with sound long-term investments, and in one format—a community-based office. This was and is Edward Jones’s only business. For training Edward Jones were eager to invest capital. Today, using specialized materials and customized facilities, Edward Jones prepares 200 new IR candidates each month. Edward Jones also provides ongoing training to all 7,500 IRs and office administrators. All training is aligned to serve the needs of one customer. Training is the company’s main investment.
  5. Compliance with regulatory and industry standards is the foundation upon which all else rests. Again, alignment helps Edward Jones with their task. They see IRs as artists. Each is given a canvas and a palette of paints. The canvas is compliance. One may not stray beyond its boundaries. Here, the power of technology and the judgment of associates are applied exhaustively to oversee and monitor all activity. The IR’ s palette, meanwhile, contains the products and service Edward Jones want to offer and excludes those they don’t. Within those boundaries they create their masterpieces. The most important aspect of compliance, however, is the sense of responsibility built into the local nature of Edward Jones’s business and the face-to-face relationship. When an IR meets a customer at church, the club, at scout meetings, or in the grocery store, the customers are real people. In seeking alignment with the needs of the serious individual investor, Edward Jones closes off potentially profitable options. But, by specializing, Edward Jones increase its leverage, offering tailored services to the one market they choose to serve. Also, by avoiding compromises they sharpen our image, which is our brand.
  6. To reduce internal competition, Edward Jones ties all bonuses to the firm’s success. Every IR has a direct financial incentive to help, rather than compete with, fellow IRs. Since this model attracts high-achievers, if Edward Jones were to set up incentives that rewarded them for outperforming one another, the resulting conflicts would be destructive. So, Edward Jones never reward the top 10 percent or top 100. All incentives are inclusive. If you achieve, your reward never comes at the expense of a colleague.
  7. Since none of Edward Jones’s products or services is tangible, nearly every associate at our firm is a knowledge worker. Their screens could contain calculus or video games. The only thing that matters is results. Because knowledge work defines the worker’s identity, the reputation of the company and its work style are crucial. Both contribute to the worker’s self-image and self-worth. Since most knowledge workers live to work, not work to live, they aspire to provide a collegial workplace. Edward Jones retain a dress code. They expect civility. They also respect the contribution of each associate.
  8. Edward Jones loves technology. Technology enables Edward Jones to deliver excellent service to more than 7,000 locations in 50 states, Canada, and the UK. For some financial services firms, the Internet presented a dilemma—should they offer online trading? For Edward Jones the decision was easy. In society, about 15 percent of the population likes to do it themselves. Since our value added is the IR-customer relationship, Edward Jones chose not to establish channel that would compete directly with IRs. Instead, Edward Jones’s internet site supports the IR-customer relationship.
  9. Edward Jones have always had heroes. Peter Drucker teaches Edward Jones how to respect the dignity and contribution of each worker. Michael Porter affirms that it’s crucial to be different, to sustain competitive advantage. John Kotter teaches that a growing organization requires many leaders. Warren Buffett shows us the power of principles and discipline in investing. Southwest Airlines shows that enormous potential exists in markets that others reject. Wal-Mart proves that you can grow without compromising service or profit margins.
  10. Edward Jones chose to remain a partnership. It will only become a corporation if they have a compelling need to do so. Because Edward Jones started with so little capital, it created a model that minimizes the need for capital-intensive items, such as bricks and mortar, product manufacture, large inventories, or proprietary trading. Edward Jones limits spending. Thus, as a partnership, Edward Jones have funded our expansion internally.

You need to find way to set yourself apart, even if those differences seem minor. Align your activities so customers and prospects can recognize your unique business proposition. By striving to be better at what you already are the best at doing, unlimited growth is possible.

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The Wonderful Benefits Intergenerational Coaching

The Wonderful Benefits Intergenerational Coaching

All generations have similar values. Many deliberate that there are such differences between generations but in reality, all feel that family is the value chosen most commonly by people of all generations. Others embrace truthfulness, love, aptitude, happiness, self-respect, knowledge, etc. So why do people at work think the ethics between generations are so different?

'Unlocking Generational Codes' by Anna Liotta (ISBN 1935586424) The public declaration of these hymns reveals how applause, pain, and politics interface within a historical setting of Roman oppression. Because even though the values are the same, the behaviors that go along with those values may be different. In addition to the standing of not snubbing the supposed stereotypes of employees, we should also not overlook undercurrents that occur in work groups. The diverse knowledge base that junior employees can present is a benefit that can be taken advantage of.

  • Give More Feedback: Animators at Disney generously pronounce how painful it can be to have directors plussing their ideas until the tiniest details, say a sliver of hair, seems just precise. We are probably unaware that people would like to know how to improve, and they merit to know it. It is their right. Besides the rewards of intergenerational learning for individuals, benefits of this learning process can also be found for corporations. Intergenerational learning leads to a higher level of social capital. This increased level of social capital has in turn the potential to enhance knowledge flows between workers in an organizational context. The negative feedback is often buried and not very specific.
  • Boost Flexibility: Literature provides a choice of concepts that are directly related to those of familiarity demand and supply. Employees working in the service sector, salaried employees, employees in executive positions, and employees with higher wages have better access to conventional flextime than other groups. The Cleveland Clinic hiring as many as two millennial doctors to replenish each retiree, as young MOs demand more work life balance. Business is concerned with productivity and profits. People are an progressively valuable resource, which management is becoming more affected to manage effectively. Attaining operative knowledge management integration is an eminent challenge facing both general management and project managers.
  • Lavish Praise for Intergenerational Workplace Lavish Praise: After considering the observations in light of extant research, we present a multi-stage process model that describes the central dynamics at work in the business experience. Over the following decade, the centers presented new communication and educational tools and maintained a wide variety of cultural events including exhibitions, forums, exchanges, and publications. The support provided to individuals and organizations proved instrumental and contributed to an added visibility of the region. The results of the analysis are deduced in the business context in order to show how communication research may impact to the analysis of intergenerational learning in a specific business. The company’s polished performances balance cheery explorations of humanity with serious concerns ranging from death, aging, and solitude to immigration, beauty, and fairy tales.
  • Adorn the Office: Apple plans to spend $1 billion to revamp a chief corporate campus with a focus on new technology and shared spaces. Foster abilities that cannot be automated away: timeless talents like critical thinking, playing nice and effective writing. Moreover, do not be afraid to skip around to understand relevant skills. This assertion also resonates with the experience of the Watsons of I.B.M. fame. In his 1990 autobiography, Tom Watson Jr. recollects how his early years were overwhelmed by a sense of inadequacy vis-à-vis his father’s expectations that he take over IBM. Obfuscating the mix further were what amounted to ‘staged’ career achievements, such as when young Tom was assigned a coveted sales territory in downtown Manhattan that allowed him to meet his sales quota in just one day.

'When Generations Collide' by Lynne Lancaster, David Stillman (ISBN 0066621070) While generational issues do need to be discussed and resolved, I am troubled about making too big an issue out of them. We do not want to draw a line between two generations of managers and involuntarily disaffect them from each other. Instead, we need to learn to work together as we seek to help librarianship advance with the times to serve the needs of the public. Each manager, new or experienced, old or young, brings respected experiences, perceptions, skills, and ideas to the profession. We need to find a way to concede those assets and put them to trustworthy use.

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Remembering Silicon Valley ‘Coach’ Bill Campbell

Remembering Silicon Valley 'Coach' Bill Campbell Bill Campbell, better known merely as “Coach,” was a renowned mentor of Silicon Valley executives and venture capitalists. He advised and coached some of tech’s biggest names, comprising Google’s Eric Schmidt, Apple’s Steve Jobs, and Amazon’s Jeff Bezos.

The cluster is a geographically proximate group of interrelated companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by cohesions and complementarities. The cluster model converges upon the circumstances that support firm competitiveness at the national scale. It is an economic development model that stimulates collaboration among institutions to accelerate the exchange of information and technology. A venture capital firm in structuring a fund aims to limit the obligation of investors to the amount of their investment and circumvent a double charge of taxation (once when returns on investments are realized by the fund and a second time when the investors receive the proceeds of their investment from the fund). The most important customers for these new technologies may be beyond US borders, however, where breaks for a solid education are hard to come by and a Western credential carries a lot of weight. Changes and adaptations have become customs and are embedded in the social norms of the Valley. But it so far cannot escape from its contract manufacturing past. It does not have the profundity of competences and capabilities, nor does it have the scale to take advantage of a more networked-oriented internet-driven economy. Entrepreneurial financing is an important mechanism to engender economic advantages. In particular, the science and technology incubators play a vital role in supporting entrepreneurship and economic growth. To date, few studies have looked meticulously at the strategies and policies that are crucial for creating an empowering environment for high-tech start-ups.

Bill Campbell did not describe himself as a workaholic, although as president of Claris he did acknowledge to working 16-hour days, having nightly business dinners, touring frequently and working weekends. After four years as head of Apple Computer’s sales and marketing effort, Campbell was connected more with hardware than software. Apple and Google shared personal ties, with Apple board members Bill Campbell and Al Gore, the former U.S. vice president, serving as advisers to Google in its formative days.

John Doerr, chair of venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins, called him “our SuperCoach — colorful confidante and mentor for leaders and whole teams.” Doerr brought Campbell to Google to serve as an informal adviser to founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Campbell was influential in the hiring of Eric Schmidt to be Google’s chief executive in August 2001. Google’s executive chairman Eric Schmidt recalled in Forbes magazine that Campbell’s supreme gift was knowing how to goad and inspire people.

It’s hard to know what Google would have been like without him. He was present at every decision of consequence. He understood the people. He would normally say very little during my staff meetings and just observe. And then I and other executives would individually make a trek to his Intuit office in Palo Alto for his feedback. He wasn’t a technical wizard, but he understood how to solve human problems and motivate people. He would have been a good coach in any industry.

Bill Campbell viewed himself as Silicon Valley’s confidant. He was very careful to say, “I’m here to help you. I don’t want anything in return. I don’t want any attention.” If he had had a public persona, it would’ve made him less effective. This was very genuine. Some people want power or fame. He wanted love. He wanted to be appreciated. And he was.

The Silicon Valley culture efficaciously captures the prevailing ideological elements of Silicon Valley, mingling celebration of technology with a attraction with what the museum’s brochures refers to as the gizmos and gadgets produced by Valley companies. An obsession with speed: work late, work long, work fast, work smart, borrow and assimilate technical knowledge at the vanguard that is not already possessed, and enter the market place with an sophisticated solution needed by many with astounding features at a low cost point. A sale is incongruous to harvest a high price if the firm is seen as running out of funds and despairing for a savior. For a firm that cannot draw outside financing, an inside round can afford convenient “backstop financing.”

A Silicon Valley Confidant

Campbell was intensely involved in Silicon Valley’s start-up culture as well. Fortune’s Jennifer Reingold wrote that Campbell was careful not to take credit for his work, even while industry leaders spoke of Campbell “as if he’s some kind of profane cosmic mash-up of Oprah, Yoda and Joe Paterno.” Teams thrive to create synergy to respond to pressures of condensed product-planning life cycles, product competitiveness, and Silicon Valley’s parent companies’ influences. Global competition in the high technology industry is also at work here, where-as Campbell mentioned above–speed, quality, cost, and innovation propel strategy and structure.

Campbell coached the Columbia University football team in the 1970s (albeit with a losing record.) He then served as CEO of Intuit in the mid-1990s, then chairman from 1998 until January-2016, when he became chairman emeritus. Campbell was also chairman of the board of trustees at Columbia University from 2005 until 2014. Previously in his career, he had worked at Kodak and Apple, where he worked as a marketing executive. He was an Apple director from 1997 until 2014. His association with Apple dates back to 1983, when he enrolled the company as vice president of marketing. In 1983, Campbell took a chance by taking a job at Apple under John Sculley and Steve Jobs. Campbell left a position at Kodak, which was a $14 billion company at the time, for Apple, which was around $90 million then. Apple’s CEO Tim Cook said, “when Bill joined Apple’s board, the company was on the brink of collapse. He not only helped Apple survive, but he’s led us to a level of success that was simply unimaginable back in 1997.”

The anonymities of the trade become no secrecies; but are as it were in the air, and children learn many of them instinctively. In Silicon Valley, good work is rightly cherished; inventions and improvements in machinery, in processes and the general organization of the business have their qualities promptly discussed: if one man starts a new idea, it is taken up by others and combined with suggestions of their own; and thus it becomes the source of further new ideas. According to Campbell, the Silicon Valley’s determination for reliability was the catalyst behind the development of the planar process, and then of the integrated circuit. He confounded things by noting that the high tech industry’s drive to clutch its producers’ profits served to direct both Silicon Valley semiconductor and tube companies to look for saleable markets.

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New Challenges in Leadership

Leadership today is more challenging than ever. Leaders face globalization; increased competition for customers, markets, and talent; rapid change; speed and complexity; change in types of workers and related contracts; loss of purpose among workers; increased process management and decreased mobility-among other things.

Leaders today must create a pathway along a liminal landscape that is constantly shifting between chaos and order. In this state, people live outside their comfort zones; they experience a loss of meaning and direction. They are faced with doing things they have little experience with or have ne.ver done before. They realize that the future is not just unknown; it is unknowable.

A special type of leader is needed for this unknowable condition-one who can help provide direction, meaning, and contain anxiety for others, on one hand, and facilitate openness, ongoing learning, and reflection on the other. These leaders must not only embrace both order and chaos but also provide a way for people to reflect transformaupon what they are doing and enable needthem to make more useful sense of it. Leaders also need to be both effective mentors for others and effective learn-ers themselves.

Leaders can successfully navigate this territory by embracing both sides of the order I chaos paradox-transformation and emergence.

  • Transformational leaders-those who bring order to guiding changemust not only convey a compelling vision and be sensitive and responsive to the needs of their constituents but also behave as role models who walk the talk. These leaders typically are officially designated and have the formal position, authority, and backing. They drive change, establish the vision, and mobilize the troops.
  • Emergent leaders, on the other hand, may not be officially sanctioned and are more on the chaos side. They may, in fact, be part of what Ralph Stacy terms the shadow organization interactions among members of a legitimate system that fall outside that legitimate system. As people operate in the shadow system, leadership roles emerge. The roles then shift based on contributions people make and how they make that contribution known.

Another way leadership emerges is when an individual articulates and initiates potentially creative thought, discoveries, and behavior either on their own behalf or that of others. Often these leaders emerge from the ranks. Conversely, they may be officially sanctioned as leaders but have relationships and ways of working that go beyond what appears on charts, in position descriptions, or in job objectives.

They make the vision come alive by creating space for it to unfold through their own actions; they build commitment and confidence, create opportnities, and help others lead them selves. These leaders translate the guiding visions, values and beliefs into action by using them to shape their own behavior.

The attributes of both transformational and emergent leaders are needed. These attributes, more likely to be manifest in a team of individuals, are essential for navigating the liminal space between chaos and order. The manner in which they are combined and applied will depend on the leaders and their organizations.

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