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Leadership Development Program Metrics: Use Measures That Work for You

We are inundated with many different approaches for measuring learning and development. Many smart people are measuring numerous aspects associated with learning, and it works for their companies. But is it right for you?

Leadership Development Program Metrics Suppose you attend a conference and get excited about one method, then another. They all sound great. You can’t contain your passion so fly back to the office to share all of the cool measures. But the organization does not show the same enthusiasm for the new measures and you’re fired.

Let’s replay this scenario to get a better ending. Imagine that you have some key questions to help you determine which measures would most impact your company? What might those questions be? Try these:

  • What measures are used to make decisions in your operation and culture?
  • Why does your Corporate University measure? Is it to improve the learner’s experience? Or workforce capability? Is it to improve the University’s products? Is it to improve the logistics of electronic or classroom delivery? Is it to determine the strategic direction of the University? Is it to evaluate the performance of your partners, suppliers, vendors? Is it to develop the talent in your University? Is it to guide the financial aspect of your University? Measure ROI? Is to monitor resource loading, etc., for planning purposes? Is it to justify the University’s value? Is it to provide audit evidence for ISO, TL, QS, SEI, or Baldrige? Is it to comply with what someone told you to?
  • What is needed in the areas you wish to measure? What problems are you trying to solve? Most likely you can’t measure everything. Use whatever quantitative or qualitative data you have to pick a focus.
  • What unit of measure and what source of the data will be meaningful or convincing to your audience? Don’t guess. Find out.
  • How might the audience interpret the data that results from the measure? What results might be seen as “good” vs “bad”?
  • How might the audience use the data? How do you want it to be used? How might you influence its use?
  • What data already exists in the company that might be leveraged? Who is using that data today? For what purpose are people using that data today?
  • Measuring Leadership Development Program Effectiveness How might the audience wish to see the data presented? When? Where?
  • What company initiatives with strong management support might you join in on to provide a relevant learning measure?
  • If the measure will require funding (new system, IT upgrade) is there a senior sponsor who can provide such funding?
  • What is the appetite of your audience for measures? You may need to throttle back or forward depending on this.

Every time someone speaks about a measure that works for their University that is consistent with what is important in their culture and with their day-to-day decision-making operations, we tend to focus our questions on the mechanics of the measure. You might ask those speaking about measurements, “Why did you select that measure?” You might follow-up with some of the above questions or new ones. Using a question-bank will stimulate you to think of more and better questions!

Understanding the thought process behind the measures selection and implementation will help you to understand whether the measure is right measure for your University and company. With so many measures and so little time, you need to know: what are the key few measures that will provide the most impact?

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Posted in Management and Leadership

When Leadership Styles Clash: Marissa Mayer at Google

'Marissa Mayer and the Fight to Save Yahoo' by Nicholas Carlson (ISBN 1455556610) Differences in leadership style can cause friction in a relationship. Two noteworthy anecdotes from Marissa Mayer and the Fight to Save Yahoo by Nicholas Carlson:

One peer Mayer’s style irked in particular was Salar Kamangar. Kamangar joined Google as its ninth employee. He drafted its original business plan and handled financing and legal early on. Younger than Mayer, he rose along with her at Google, though not as conspicuously. Mayer and Kamangar clashed often. The specific habit of Mayer’s that drove Kamangar nuts was her ability to speak incredibly fast, not allowing him to reenter the debate. The rivalry between Mayer and Kamangar was so intense that when Kamangar was made a vice president before her, she threatened to quit the company. She got her promotion months later. That kind of naked ambition was also hard for some people to take. Many early Google employees believed Mayer was too quick to take credit for successful products that were either first imagined by or built on the back end by others.

And:

Starting in 2001, Mayer and a deeply respected Google search scientist named Krishna Bharat teamed up to build Google News. Bharat was one of the engineers who had followed Jeff Dean from DEC to Google. Bharat was renowned for his work in information processing and information retrieval-the real, gritty technical stuff that makes a search engine work. Bharat had an interest in news-and in doing semantic analysis of documents. Those interests led him to develop the underpinnings of the technology that would eventually become central to Google News. With Mayer, he worked to turn that technology into a product for normal users. To the equation, she brought a sense of how users would actually interact with Google News. It was a healthy relationship for a long time. Then Google News began to get very popular. It was one of Google’s first noncore search products to achieve escape velocity. Rightly, both Bharat and Mayer felt pride of parenthood. The difference was that Bharat, like many engineers, was the quiet, cerebral type. Mayer was more of a self-promoter with outward-facing responsibilities. In the press, at conferences, even in lectures at Stanford, she would casually discuss Google News as a product she had led to launch. Over time, it began to sound to Bharat that Mayer was claiming the idea as her own and taking all the public credit for the success of Google News. Their relationship soured.

It’s difficult to change the leadership style and yet it’s easier to change the style than the system.

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Posted in Management and Leadership Uncategorized

How to Increase Profits with Ethics

The Ethics of Profit, the Profit of Ethics

Amid an ethics crisis, we can’t fake credibility. Trust is now a function of ethical behavior, not stated intention. To be believable is now a matter of substance, not image. Once you’ve baked this attitude into your organization’s DNA, you’ll find that responding to customer needs, outpacing competitors, and introducing groundbreaking innovation becomes an organic part of how you do business.

The Ethics of Profit, the Profit of Ethics Executives are required to be whole persons and create whole companies. Excesses in one area—such as ruthless acknowledgement of facts and numbers exclusively—and neglect in another—such as minimizing the emotional catastrophes that accompany downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions—predict ruin. Being razor sharp strategically—as was Enron—but lacking the common courage to put wild risks into cool perspective, cascaded a company from the crowning jewel of opulence to the dark abyss of bankruptcy. Refusing to be whole is the recipe for meltdown.

Incomplete human beings become defective managers. To survive today’s ethics breakdown requires executives to mobilize their full potential.

Answers lie in courageous decisions—to be authentically open-minded, to make self-transcending commitments, and to be responsible to help co-create a communal culture. That is ethics!

You increase real profits with true ethics through attitudes and actions.

If a tree is dying, don’t just prune it but examine the soil. And if a business is failing, examine the leadership attitudes for lack of excellence and greatness. Authentic leaders send messages to their people that transform the culture. Leaders help awaken these attitudes in their people. All attitudes are needed. All are ethical values. One alone will not do. Attitudes precede the techniques. How-tos without right attitudes are empty gestures.

Principle #1 for Ethical Profits: Freedom is the Foundation

How to Increase Profits with Ethics The foundation of leadership is knowing that we are born with free will, we have free will, and we can never relinquish our free will. Until our dying day will we have free will. Free will is a clear experience. Free will makes ethics possible. Free will is the source of our power and the origin of our anxiety.

Usual leadership theory tells us to influence people’s thoughts and feelings. And coaching is to help leaders convince people to think and to feel in ways helpful to a business’ bottom line: think of the mission of the company and feel loyal and joyful towards the company. What is missing is the will. We believe that workers think and feel, have ideas and emotions, but we ignore the reality of a free will.

Leadership is to know, learn, and teach freedom, free will, consequences, responsibility, ownership, accountability, and ultimately choosing accountability for the sake of both financial necessity and existential honor. Here, in the inner zone of freedom and free will, lies the bedrock of the health of your body, your loves, and your pocketbook. As leader, you are a secular apostle preaching the power of freedom.

Principle #2 for Ethical Profits: Leaders Choose Principle

Leaders freely choose to live by principle. Immanuel Kant wrote; “Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and the more intensely the mind of thought is drawn to them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me.” The moral law within me! Don’t we all sense it, if we hold still and listen in silence?

We all have a conscience. It draws us like a magnet to principle. It is never selfish. Conscience and the moral law have a mysterious draw or claim on us. Because of it, we can distinguish good from bad, right from wrong. It is related to respect, pride, dignity, and self-esteem. We know that we have a duty, a destiny, a task in life.

Authentic Leadership It is aroused by words, such as fairness, justice, equality, and liberty. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution resonate movingly to something inside that can only be called our conscience. Unless we respond to our inner soul, we skirt the perilous edge. Authentic leaders turn back from greed and selfishness, from narcissism and naive values, to return instead to things that matter most—to things that are eternal, genuinely worthy, honest, generous, and clean. True value is not what one person or one sect dictates to the rest of us. True value results from honest and collective examination of who we are, where we come from, and where we are going. The poet Rilke said, “Do not seek answers; live the questions.” Leaders heed this call.

Principle #3 for Ethical Profits: Realism is a Way of Life

Realism is more than the numbers: it means you never lie to yourself, you do not deny the truth about yourself. You know that when something hurts, when you get inordinately angry, upset, enraged, or irrational, it is because you are threatened fundamentally, for you secretly agree. You can’t let it go and, in fact, as a last resort, expel this insight about yourself forcibly from your consciousness. Each person has a point of inferiority. There, when touched, you are sensitive, and there, when reminded, you become virulently defensive. There you say, not that you think you are inferior, but there in your depraved image of yourself you say that in fact you are inferior! But you keep the secret and get furious at anyone who dares to point it out to you.

Coming to terms with that reality, accepting that perception of yourself, is the very heart of your strength and your power as a rightful leader of men and women. You can take criticism, fair or unfair; you can take put downs, deserved or not; you can tolerate defeat, expected or not; and you can survive disgrace and humiliation.

To get there is realism beyond the statistics and strikes at the core of your emotional intelligence. People with power are both adulated and hated beyond what is reasonable. They can take it, even thrive on it and learn from it, and teach others how under such circumstances—not only to preserve their dignity but to magnify it. To restore your inner self-respect when logic is against it is to “pull yourself up by your bootstraps.” That is why life confronts us with its tests and furnishes us with their messages. This is that bit of the soul which gets its baptism of fire. Have you passed the test?

Principle #4 for Ethical Profits: Grand Strategy is a Rare Virtue

The mark of an authentic leader is commitment to grand strategy. To enlarge the scope of your strategy, take any big news story—the War on Terror, once envied and lionized CEOs now facing censure, suicide bombers, and terrorist attacks—and ask: what deep lessons are there for me in how I conduct my business and my life?

What messages, what learning, about the things that you control can you derive from an enlarged perspective of any monumental event? Impeachment teaches us that dubious actions have unexpected and dramatic consequences, and sports victories teach us the power of persistence, commitment, focus, and dedication. You then ask: How does that apply to me and to my business? Do this with inspiration and creative innovation.

Principle #5 for Ethical Profits: Lead Through Language

Intelligent Leadership Conversations Language is all the action you have. But it has power. At every opportunity, you engage workers in intelligent leadership conversations. You talk knowledgeably and authoritatively about free will and responsibility, of principle and conscience, of hard facts and self-knowledge, of grand strategy and innovation, and of greatness and chaos, as the ineradicable structures of the human mind. You talk through stories and metaphors—sports, politics, religion, entertainment, adventure, family, career moves—and relate that to work and company. You let everyone know: “This is how we do business here.”

Relationship between Business Ethics and Profits

The notions of business ethics and profits must once have had originality; they did not start out of the ground populous, lettered, and versed in many of the arts of life; they made themselves all this, and were then the greatest and most powerful nations of the world. More seriously, the more comfortable managers grow with the ingrained abuses of ethics in their businesses, the harder it is to make any changes, and the more vulnerable their companies become to uncertainties around the corner.

Relationship Between Business Ethics and Profits The combination of all these causes forms so great a mass of influences hostile to Individuality, that it is not easy to see how it can stand its ground.

Many unconventional marketing practices are not yet governed by clear rules regarding ethics. This is a big turning point in the transformation, both practically and emotionally.

The three phases of change can be managed in such a way that people understand the strategic rationale for the decisions handed down, even when they are tough, and clearly understand their role in shaping the new organization.

Ethics, in the end, is not something we do. It is something we become.

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Ethics and Compliance in Business: The Road Ahead

Designing an Effective Compliance and Ethics Program

In two years, the climate for investment has turned from irrational exuberance—as Alan Greenspan called it—to excessive worry and downright pessimism. Can we correct the excesses and build on the achievements of the booming 90s? Or was it all a mirage—a passing fever that caused many to lose touch with reality?

Designing an Effective Compliance and Ethics Program We can’t take progress for granted. We must nurture the spread of market-based economies and work toward a more open, integrated, and flexible world economy. We need to extend an information-led upsurge in innovation.

The initiation of all wise or noble things comes and must come from individuals; generally at first from some one individual.

Partly because of the growth in corporate profits, economists at JP Morgan Chase anticipate GDP growth of about 3.5 percent this year. While consumer spending gains are likely to slow, that should be offset by higher business spending on capital goods and inventories. We have the lowest inflation (1.5 percent) and interest rates in 40 years—together with GDP growth of 3.5 percent and an unemployment rate of just 6 percent. And, the S&P 500 closed the books on 2002 with a sharp increase in reported earnings (up 27 percent) and a 21 percent increase in operating earnings. From this transfer of the world into the consciousness, this beholding of all things in the mind, follow easily his whole ethics.

Complete liberty of contradicting and disproving our opinion is the very condition which justifies us in assuming its truth for purposes of action; and on no other terms can a being with human faculties have any rational assurance of being right.

Looking ahead, we believe that the stage is set for sustained, long-term growth. Inflation is low, and we have rising productivity, or increasing output per hour worked—the best single measure of economic health. Over the past four quarters, productivity growth in U.S. reached about 5 percent, suggesting that the transformation of the workplace—fueled by innovation, technology, and globalization—has not slowed.

I do not assert that anything better is compatible, as a general rule, with the present low state of the human mind. All he can claim is, freedom to point out the way. In this age, the mere example of non-conformity, the mere refusal to bend the knee to custom, is itself a service.

Business Ethics and Compliance

By the end of this year, global growth should return to the 3 percent-plus annual pace that was the average during 1995 to 2000. China is booming, growing at 7 percent or more—a dramatic example of the power of market-driven economic advancement. Better results are possible longer-term, especially if Europe and Japan make their economies more flexible.

Business Ethics and Compliance If the U.S. recovery is underway and the global outlook is reasonably good, why don’t people feel better? Why the sour mood about financial markets?

As I see it, we are still recovering from the excesses and outsized optimism of the late 90s. But not all of the optimism was unjustified. We saw a surge in innovation and entrepreneurship, an investment boom, economic prosperity, equity market expansion, wealth enhancement, job creation, low unemployment, a focus on future growth, and financial innovation.

But expectations become outsized. By early 2000, things changed. Suddenly, our system began to look dysfunctional. We witnessed the bursting of the stock market bubble, a decline of more than 25 percent in the market capitalization of stocks, shrinkage in the retirement and savings accounts of millions of people, accounting scandals, outrage over pay packages for top executives, and a loss of confidence in accounting, Wall Street, and corporate America.

I believe that other ethics than any which can be evolved from exclusively Christian sources, must exist side by side with Christian ethics to produce the moral regeneration of mankind; and that the Christian system is no exception to the rule, that in an imperfect state of the human mind the interests of truth require a diversity of opinions.

Ten Lessons for Ethics and Compliance in Business

  1. We have been going through unusual volatility in financial markets because we have been going through unusual change. Part of the shift has been increased reliance on the sale of marketable securities—stocks, bonds, and other instruments—rather than bank lending. Individuals and businesses alike became less risk averse.
  2. While our capitalist model is prone to excesses in a boom, our system is transparent, efficient, and self-correcting. Our system does not prop up losers or sweep problems under the rug. It exposes and punishes speculative excesses through bankruptcy and loss of capital. It puts the heat of publicity on executive crime, and it sends criminals to prison. Even in ugly circumstances, this system works.
  3. We need to dose the gap between pay and performance, especially at the top. Sure, we can debate the merits of large compensation packages to CEOs and other top officers. But the stock market remains today sharply higher than in the past, and the gains have been widely dispersed. Indeed, that is one big reason for our long-term optimism.
  4. We have a true shareholding democracy. In 1982, when the Dow was struggling to top 1,000, fewer than 20 percent of U.S. households owned stock. Today more than 50 percent own stocks. If the wealth created by a rising stock market is spread among many people, the pain of a falling market is more widely shared. Even though the Dow is down about 3,000 points from its high in early 2000, it is still up eight times from 1982.
  5. Ten Lessons for Ethics and Compliance in Business We have seen tremendous job creation over the past decade. You can add up all of the job creation in Europe and Japan over the past two decades—and multiply that by a double-digit number—and it still won’t equal the number of new jobs created here.
  6. We are still adjusting to the downside. Is the market overpriced or underpriced today? I don’t know, but I do know that it is closer to fair valuation than it was at its peak in early 2000. I count that as another plus.
  7. Individuals who engage in fraud—treating ordinary expenses as capital expenditures and inflating profits—should go to jail. The visible enforcement of laws designed to protect shareholders and other investors is essential in capital markets. Our free market system depends highly on trust. Fraud and corruption highlight the need for transparency and governance. Still, we shouldn’t indict the many because of the actions of a few.
  8. The regulatory and legislative process can help restore trust in our system. As the CEO of a publicly owned company, I am comfortable with the new requirement that the CFO and I personally certify the financial statements. I regard many of the new rules and regulations as healthy. Value-based leadership can’t be an oxymoron. But in the long run, the attempt to impose ethics or morality from the outside with new rules and regulations is less likely to succeed than what we do on the inside to promote high standards of integrity.
  9. Integrity is imperative, and must be combined with innovation and an enterprising spirit—the essence of real progress. In a market-based system, there is pain to be felt and a price to be paid for change and progress. Corporate America must continue to reinvent itself—finding new ways to motivate, reward, and inspire people.
  10. Our mistakes have been mistakes of judgment, not mistakes of principle or ethics. Yes, we have made mistakes as JPMorgan Chase. We concentrated too much in the telecom sector. We were misled by Enron. And we did not anticipate the sudden collapse of numerous investment-grade companies into bankruptcy. So, we have made mistakes—but they have been mistakes of judgment.

Compliance-based and Integrity-based Code of Ethics

Compliance-based and Integrity-based Code of Ethics We have been through a lot over the last two years. We have created a global financial firm through a series of mergers, culminating with the merger of J.P. Morgan and Chase. All mergers are difficult, but we are gaining market share in key areas and receiving positive feedback from our clients.

But if our leaders only had a rudimentary understanding of how management works, perhaps the most important question about any ethics policy up for consideration would not only have a better chance of being asked (before ever needing to entertain the questions of ethics, morals, politics, or constitutionality), but also of being answered correctly: will it work?

Our strategy is based on diversity and balance of wholesale and retail business. On the wholesale side, clients prefer a global, broad-based firm that can deliver integrated capabilities. In retail, we have great strengths. Our financial performance has been disappointing, but we are not making excuses—we are learning from our mistakes and making changes to gain strength from the challenges.

Markets allow us to learn from our mistakes as well as our successes—to change, adapt, innovate and grow.

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Posted in Management and Leadership

Welcome to An Era of CEO Activism

Welcome to An Era of CEO Activism

Gone are the days when managers would shrink back from revealing their beliefs and viewpoints on matters that had little to do with their company’s routine endeavors.

Leaders should think carefully before jumping on the closest soapbox. Starbucks’s Founder and CEO Howard Schultz learned that the hard way in 2015 when he started the Race Together campaign in the aftereffects of the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo. Schultz inspired Starbucks baristas to converse about race relations with customers whilst serving them their morning coffee. That didn’t come down with easy. In due course, Starbucks dialed back the initiative.

  • Topic: Race relations. Starbucks’ Howard Schultz got into hot water after he launched Starbucks’ Race Together campaign which encouraged baristas to talk about race with customers.
  • Topic: Vaccination. Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg incurred the wrath of anti-vaccine commenters when he posted a picture of his Infant daughter visiting the doctor for routine vaccinations.
  • Topic: Common Core Education. ExxonMobil’s Rex Tillerson aroused the ire of education advocates when he referred to American students as “products” that companies simply don’t want to buy.
  • Topic: Global Warming. Unilever’s Paul Polman has publicly maintained that businesses and governments should commit to environmentally sustainable practices.
  • Topic: LGBT Rights. CEOs of Salesforce, Apple, Intel, Dow, Bank of America, Facebook, Yahoo! and others have come out against a wave of anti-LGBT legislation in several states.
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Posted in Global Business Leaders and Innovators Management and Leadership

The Best Leaders Model Their Stated Priorities

Leaders Model Stated Priorities

Everyone is a boss-watcher. “Other people take their cue from the leader—not from what the leader says, but what the leader does,” says Colin Powell.

The leader is always in a glass house. People listen to the words, but what really interests them is what the boss does. People carefully track what questions he asks, what reports she asks for and reads, what meeting agenda priorities he sets, what resources she allocates, whom he criticizes, what thrills or angers her, whom he lauds, whom she promotes, whom he assigns to which project, and whom she visits and hangs out with.

People observe these things, and then, regardless of the boss’s words they draw conclusions about what’s really important, what’s truly urgent, what must be the top priorities, and who the leader is. When the leader’s words and deeds match, the leader’s credibility and influence go up in their eyes. When they don’t, credibility and influence are diminished. This is such a powerful and predictable process that leaders have no neutral actions. Each action or decision has great symbolic impact.

Too often, leaders aren’t aware that they’re being observed, and that colleagues have long memories. Some leaders think nothing about promising something and not delivering, or stating a priority and not “living” it. If an executive states that being customer-centric is a priority, but he is not spending more time with customers, then he’s not walking the talk He’s not doing the work of leadership. If she doesn’t personally insure that capital allocation, performance metrics, sourcing, logistics, scheduling, information systems, and compensation reflect a customer-centric priority, she’s not walking the talk She’s not doing the work of leadership. In both cases, it’s not likely that innovative, proactive customer-centric work will be done.

In contrast, effective managers know that their glass house offers enormous leverage in boosting performance, as well as their own credibility and influence—but only if they become the ultimate role model. For example, if a leader talks about honesty, candor, open-door communication, collaboration, or risk-taking, then that leader more than anyone else—must model and support those virtues. The leader must not only be honest and candid, but also ensure that employees who do the same are properly acknowledged, rewarded, and protected. When people see these actions, they know that they can count on their leader, and are more likely to cultivate those virtues themselves. The leader’s power and integrity are enhanced in the process.

Effective managers become the ultimate role model

How powerful is the “glass house effect”? Well, consider how it might be applied to a current vexing national problem. Over the past 24 months the integrity and liquidity of our capital markets have been assailed by a wave of scandals revolving around fraudulent financial reporting, sleight-of-hand accounting, piracy in the executive suites, and incestuous self-serving relationships among accountants, consultants, analysts, and investment bankers. The effect not only extends the economic recession, but it also breeds doubt and cynicism about the market system.

When President Bush spoke about corporate malfeasance, about righting wrongs and putting the bad guys away, few question his sincerity. But to take advantage of the “glass house” effect, he could use the “bully pulpit” of his office to do the following:

  • Talk frankly about honesty, full disclosure and transparency in reporting.
  • Decry phony revenues, bogus earnings, spinning IPO’s, cozy analyst investment banker relationships, and risk-free executive compensation.
  • Cite high-profile examples of greed and deceit, express serious concern, and offer inspirational alternatives.
  • Refer to abuses in governance and underscore the fiduciary responsibility.
  • Discuss accountability for illegal activity, including civil litigation, criminal prosecution, and imprisonment.
  • Tell new SEC head William Donaldson to aggressively pursue corporate corruption and market abuses to avoid conflict-of-interest charges.
  • Tell us that his new team will be packed with people of impeccable independence, integrity, and competence.
  • Raise the SEC’s annual funding as the agency copes with many cases. Leaders define their agenda by the resources they allocate to it.
  • Insist that the agency aggressively pursue corporate corruption.

Great leaders mobilize people to do extraordinary things with simple ideas. During the 20 years that Jack Welch transformed GE, he was only committed to a few strategic priorities: globalization, total quality, boundaryless, de-bureaucratization, and e-commerce. None of these initiatives were new. Many companies had similar objectives. But Welch demonstrated a fanatic obsession with driving each initiative, and held his managers accountable for achieving results. GE people knew where their CEO stood. Welch’s approach was aligned with Powell’s advice: “Figure out what is crucial, and stay focused” When people see that resolve, they “get” what their mindsets and behaviors ought to be.

Great leaders clearly state their principles and goals and follow through. They live the principles, own the goals, and ensure that everyone is aware of it. If you’re a leader, learn to use your visibility to your advantage.

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19 Types of Leadership Styles

Types of Leadership Styles Which means we all have the ability to provide leadership in some way: as professionals, as parents, as spouses, and as friends. To find a reason to want to lead we only need remember that when we provide leadership, we create value. And value creation creates happiness. Few things bring as much satisfaction as a job well done. They opposed the centralization of authority in the revolutionary leadership, agitating for moderation and “democracy”, and they enacted a number of important social reforms.

We are re-evaluating leaders, downgrading those who are guided by history, not vision; by what they know, not what they can find out; by what has worked before, not what works now; by a sense of power, not a sense of people. From experience, I draw these 19 types who are less than real leaders:

  1. Manipulator. He believes everyone has a price. He exploits the system and mistrusts people who have no hidden agenda or naked ambition or who appear to be straight arrows. Whatever his self-indulgence, he expects it to be reflected in his people. He is attracted to those who display similar inclinations. Using fear and intimidation, he manipulates people.
  2. Types of Leadership Styles: Frustrated Participant Frustrated Participant. He wants to believe in the system and sees himself as dedicated, loyal, and ambitious. He absorbs inconsistency in policy, flagrant violation of fairness, and blatant duplicity without protest or complaint, feeling he must protect the company’s image. He anticipates his boss’ needs, whether appropriate or not, feeling that it is safer to go along to get along rather than to challenge a boss.
  3. Inside Outsider. He experiences inclusion, but not as a player. Ever the outsider, he is a specialist with skills but never with line authority. He may have impressive credentials, pay his dues, and be initiated into the culture of the elite, but he is never identified by it as “one of us.” Much as he tries to enhance his status, his unique skills only exaggerate the difference, eclipsing his perceived effectiveness. So, he experiences being needed but not wanted. If he can handle this, he will be tolerated. If not, he will lose his influence and his station.
  4. Winning Side Saddler. He is a pyramid climber, pleaser, anticipator, and executer, dispatching issues before they become problems, endearing him to his bosses. He is a chameleon with no coherent point of view, a hunch player who knows every verse of the “CYA” book. He tells you what you want and expect to hear. The more uptight people are, the more prominent his role, as he provides a buffer to the ugly edges of reality. In case of a power shift, he has already saddled the winning horse.
  5. Types of Leadership Styles: Nostalgic Elitist Nostalgic Elitist. He is a vestige of past glory who lives in a black-and-white world of workers and managers, thinkers and doers, educated and the ignorant. He takes cynical delight in the vocabulary of “social change,” as he sees it changing nothing, merely manipulating fads and slogans with smoke and mirrors. He prefers fixed structures and closed systems. He can’t fathom why his authority is challenged, why the less gifted are to be treated as equals, or why his superiority is not self-evident.
  6. Waiter in the Wings. He appreciates both his potential and obstacles to success. While others complain about change, he is husbanding his resources, planning tactics, and developing strategy. he has no plans to tie his future to a sinking ship. Operationally, he makes himself indispensable, balancing stealth with openness, insouciance with results. He is waiting in the wings to make his move. As relaxed as he seems, he is wound as tight as piano wire. He can only wait so long before he moves on.
  7. Happy in Harness. He accepts his role because he loves what he does, never wanting to be anything else. Each promotion is a genuine surprise. By nature, he is appreciative and generous, easy to work with or for, competent without being righteous, confident without being arrogant. He creates a climate for growth. He is trusted and fair, consistent and honest. He would never countermand an executive order or bad-mouth a superior. He takes pride in his position.
  8. Quiet Soldier. He is more comfortable as a follower and identifies with the aspirations and frustrations of his subordinates. By inclination, he is a doer rather than a thinker, an implementer rather than, an innovator. He is a frustration to those in charge. They see him having the talent but not the resolve to accept risk or do more. Moody and taciturn, he is apt to accept untenable situations rather than do something about them. His predilection to wait for orders can derail projects and miss deadlines.
  9. Victim. The victim has a martyr complex. He expects to be trusted without being trustworthy, given cherished assignments without being dependable, and taken at his word without being credible. Call it tunnel vision, myopia, or hindsight, he has it. He delights in the failures of others, but finds no humor when others delight in his. When others fail, they’re incompetent; when he fails, others let him down. He claims other people ban him because of his race, religion, ethnicity, status, education, accent, or origin. If that fails, he is discriminated against because he is too fat, thin, short, tall, old, young, quiet, or loud. He justifies his performance—and he wants blame put on everything and everybody.
  10. Types of Leadership Styles: Unbending Idealist Unbending Idealist. He idealizes life and lives in a dream world. He is a product of film and television and prefers to see the world as it should be and himself as a savior of lost causes and lost souls, explaining away failures and suspect conduct. Consequences are suspended, forgiven, or ignored. The idealist suffers incurably from naivete, failing to see it as compassionate condescension. With every failure he reinvents himself, never seeming to register the folly of his ways. His idealism drops like a stone into cynicism once brutal reality meets unbending idealism.
  11. Adventurer. Consumed with the adventure, he is out to push the envelope. When cornered, he comes out swinging with a “red pencil,” a caustic remark, or an exception to the rule. He can lie with a straight face, looking his accuser in the eye. He has no sense of consequences, as it never occurs to him that he might be caught, humiliated, and terminated. Constantly challenging himself to be more sensational, he cuts corners, fakes results, doctors the books, invents fictitious deeds, and musters the support of legitimate doers by guile, vanity, and flattery.
  12. Spin Doctor. As the public relations conduit, he is the eyes and ears and voice of authority. His concern—to put a good face on a bad situation—requires him to be a good liar. He tends to reduce everything to PR speak with cavalier flamboyance, dismissing the facts, often believing in his own rhetoric or press release. He is apt to be a quick-witted, congenial, backstage performer.
  13. Reluctant Soldier. Neither leader nor follower, he simply is. Everyone knows and tolerates him. No one expects anything from him, and nobody does anything about him. He’s been at the same job at the same level for years and received increased compensation and entitlements for doing less and less. Survival is his sharpest tool.
  14. Types of Leadership Styles: Unforgivable Prodigal Son Unforgivable Prodigal Son. This person once stumbled badly. His faux pas was of such magnitude to embarrass the company but not warrant dismissal. Once he was punished, he returned to his job stigmatized, and became a pariah with his guilt whispered behind his back. New people are told to stay clear of him. He tells new people of his crime before they ask. Gossip and innuendo are his weapons of mass emotional destruction.
  15. Over Achiever. By educating himself beyond his intelligence or by pushing his ambition to the brink, he is exposed to situations beyond his capacity to cope. Action is his call and shooting from the hip is his modus operandi. He has a surface acumen that is engaging and catches the eye of his superiors. His intensity is contagious. He is likeable and agreeable. He has lived so long with his limitations, which he hides in a swirl of activity, that they have become assets. He is better suited to manage things than people.
  16. Messianic Manager. He sees himself as a savior. His approach to modify reality is to create the culture that supports the interests of the organization and fulfills the needs of workers and, voila! Leaders and workers get off the dime, move on to the same page, and work gets done. He thinks that giving workers everything but the kitchen sink will cause them to applaud leadership with high-level performance. This does not happen. Rather, the culture stumbles into a permissive complacency, where workers waffle in terminal adolescence.
  17. Pained Participant. He is able, but the world is organized against him. A tragic figure, he is like a Dante who has lost the keys to his own inferno, caged in the pain of self-pity, seeing his situation as unique and his dilemma untenable. He wrestles with his confusion in dialectic, which he will gladly share with you. Life is against him because he doesn’t have the right parents, proper education, or the breaks. He is in a cage of his making with an invisible ceiling enclosed in invisible walls. Life, the system, the company, circumstances have all wronged him. His anxieties plague operations.
  18. Types of Leadership Styles: Missionary Missionary. He spreads the gospel according to the corporate fathers to the masses. He does this without question or reflection. He is an acolyte, and they are his knowing masters. When this mission is consistent with what is needed, everything works smoothly. When the mission conflicts with need, derailing momentum and causing tension, he takes responsibility. He is on a mission to help people be in sync with policy. He has a strong character but a narrow point of view.
  19. The Professional. The professional’s degree and title are often used to justify his pay grade and benefit package. He is rarely schooled in the discipline of his charges but believes that he can manage anything. He feels ordained to position, power, and perks. He has this romantic notion of being instantly gratified with affluence, prestige, privilege and trust without earning any of it. Lost on him is the import of experience and the benefit of failure in learning. For him, acquiring credentials is a way to avoid struggle and pain. He wants a position, not a job; desires authority without accountability; and expects to be measured in terms of time spent doing rather than results. To him, having presence is more effective than purpose; making an impression more defining than making a difference; having a winning personality more the focus than winning performance. He is programmed to behave in learned helplessness.

Contrast these types of leaderships with someone who genuinely believes themselves to be a capable leader. Such a person can recognize their mistakes without succumbing to paralyzing insecurity. They can counterattack pleas for inappropriate special treatment lacking fair justification because to give in wouldn’t fit with their vision of good leadership and because they can survive being disliked. Others may disagree with their decisions, disapprove of their vision, but seldom question their skills as a leader.

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Core Challenges to Contextual Leadership

Core Challenges to Contextual Leadership

Leadership is a socially constructed phenomenon and that organizational members act to co-create leadership.

Leadership is a vibrant, contextual phenomenon that occurs in a multitude of different organizations or systems. Mostly, we can learn from them that leadership is more multifaceted than standard business contexts imply, and that precious lessons can be gained from the characteristics and foibles of leadership in many contexts.

On the one hand, contextualizing leadership in modern organizations, which are complex systems, is more than conventional approaches can encapsulate. On the other hand, leadership theory and research in nonstandard contexts are too vague and imprecise about their contributions to the general field of leadership.

  • Pressure and competition. Leaders are under high, individualized pressure to be successful, while they can only create empowering conditions for organizational effectiveness
  • High risk. Navigating the boundaries of “life or death” contexts, leaders’ actions have possibly devastating consequences for themselves and others
  • Creativity and innovation. Leaders are challenged with the paradox between basically striving for creativity and innovation, while eventually having to meet specified targets
  • Care and community. Contextual conditions hamper leaders’ attempts and responsibilities to take care of others’ wellbeing
  • Adaptability. Leaders who plot a course through complex contexts need to be flexible in their approach to leadership, tailoring it to the idiosyncrasies of each context
  • Perseverance. Leaders need persistence to surmount drawbacks and failure in order to ultimately grow and succeed. Organizations nurture this process by providing leaders with a supportive environment, while leaving room for personal growth
  • Handling paradox. In complex contexts, paradox may arise in many different forms. Leaders can handle it, perhaps, by using formal and informal structures, and managing internal processes and external views of an organization concurrently
  • Leading with values. For the sake of their own and others’ wellbeing as well as sustained organizational success, leaders need to reflect and act based on their fundamental beliefs and moral values
  • Inventing the future. Leaders nurture creativity through socially determined processes. New approaches such as play enable leaders to envision potentialities of the future
  • Sharing responsibility. The complexities of modern organizations require leadership in the collective, for example, in the form of shared values-based leadership in communities
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Five Tools & Techniques for Performance Improvement

Five Tools & Techniques for Performance Improvement If you are witnessing unhappy customers, uninformed employees, and mounting chaos in your company, you are experiencing a performance gap—the difference between the outcomes you expect and what you are getting. With today’s pressure for results, you’ll need fast, simple tools to close your performance gap. By applying such tools, you can reap big paybacks in the form of steady gains.

By performance improvement, I mean more revenue, lower costs, and more done in less time with fewer resources. Flexibility is needed to adapt to changing demands and to devise innovative methods for improving productivity and service quality. Customers who get more than they expect then tell their friends, and keep coming back.

Key to performance improvement are people who produce more with better information, greater clarity, and less interference. A performance improvement project is a related group of tasks resulting in measurable improvement. Most successful changes “bubble up” from the bottom. Building one by one may be more effective than a large-scale, top-down strategy. Investing in employee education is an important signal that the organization is committed to the personal growth of everyone on the team.

Already energetic characters on any large scale are becoming merely traditional. Improvement in the means of communication promotes it, by bringing the inhabitants of distant places into personal contact, and keeping up a rapid flow of changes of residence between one place and another. Not only that, but the best answer often changes over time.

Five Tools to Improve Employee Engagement and Performance

So here are five tips for how to accelerate your performance and reach your own peak sooner. Five tools will lead to desirable results and help you get to the right place:

  1. Measurable outcomes. This involves reliable measures such as revenue, cost, time, quality, and customer satisfaction. By documenting measures before, during, and after the project, you can gauge success. Qualitative measures must translate into observable behavior. Develop clear statements of what that measure means and specific actions needed to attain the goal. Know who will be affected and how, as well as what will improve, and by how much.
  2. Your plan. Write an airtight description of your project’s boundaries, benefits, costs, and risks—then name those accountable for results. For each task, you’ll perform five actions: complete, approve, support, consult with, and inform. Specify the person associated with each action. The faster you produce your desired outcome, the easier you will build momentum.

Measurable outcomes Improve Employee Engagement and Performance

  • Effective problem analysis of the selected performance. Break the problem down into smaller, simpler pieces, looking for a pattern. Formulate and test theories. Observe and collect data until you figure out what is going on and why. Don’t throw resources at your problem in a vain attempt to solve it by sheer luck. Avoid wasteful spending on training, software, and experts—the three sinkholes. A problem well defined is 75 percent solved! In some cases you are not dealing with a problem, but an unrealized opportunity to impact the organization.
  1. A reliable feedback system. People want to know what and how well they are doing. You could set up simple charts, one for each success indicator. Depict progress and downplay minor setbacks. Cumulative measures, for instance, may be better than daily, weekly, or monthly ones. Exchange feedback during one-on-one conversations, informal chats, and small-group meetings. Inspire confidence early and adjust as you go along.
  2. A system for collecting and applying what you learn about performance improvement. Know-how (in-house talent) is far better than “show-how” (pricey experts). Conduct an after-action review to convert real-time learning into practical knowledge. Work through answers to questions about what should and did happen during an event.

Techniques Used to Improve Employee Performance

Tips for Employee Performance Improvement Quickly build and transfer skills, so participants can see benefits right away. The tasks that find their way to the bottom are the ones that you should eliminate altogether. But too often we say it with a sigh, like it’s a sentence—or we’re a victim. It can easily become pessimistic, and nothing will kill your creativity, job performance, or relationships like going negative.

If the diagnosis of performance anxiety is correct, it’s astonishing how often paradoxical intervention works. This, even knowing as most of us do that facts and figures about past performance are often flawed indicators of future performance. With that kind of visibility and transparency in performance, it’s easy to call it the way you see it. Again, the combination of competitive insight and cost understanding drives efforts to reduce costs.

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Business Analyst Scott Galloway on The Folly of Twitter’s Part-Time CEO Jack Dorsey

Business Analyst Scott Galloway on Folly of Twitter's Part-Time CEO Jack Dorsey

At a keynote address at Amazon Professional Sellers’ Summit NYC 2017, the fast-talking, straight-faced New York University-academic and business analyst Scott Galloway addressed the folly of Twitter’s board of directors and part-time CEO Jack Dorsey:

I think the board of Twitter is negligent and should be removed by shareholders … To say to somebody she is better than you at 25 hours a week than you are at 50 hours a week is negligent … There is no way that cannot create negative morale in a management team and send absolutely the wrong signal at everybody … [Being a CEO] is not a part-time job, especially when thousands of people are relying on you for their livelihood and tens of thousands of people have decided to put their hard-earned money into your stock and you are literally competing in what is probably the highest stakes game in history … and that is who wants custody of the consumer in social media and yet they have a part-time CEO … that is just negligent and outrageous … if someone is talented … if someone is really impressive … and that person happens to be in their 30s and wear a beard and a turtleneck we think “Oh, it’s Jesus Christ risen again” … “It’s Steve Jobs” … we have this idolatry of innovators that is really unhealthy and unrealistic and damaging to basic common business sense and business maturity around shareholder value.

'The Four: The Hidden DNA' by Scott Galloway (ISBN 0735213658) Part of Scott Galloway’s appeal is his deadpan delivery of peppery one-liners.

Legendary investor Bill Miller has criticized Twitter on this topic: “It is insane to have Jack Dorsey be a part-time CEO at a company with the issues that Twitter has. … If a part-time CEO makes sense, then so does a part-time CFO, part-time chief technology officer. That just makes no sense whatsoever.”

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