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Quotes from Jeswald W. Salacuse’s Leading Leaders

Jeswald W. Salacuse‘s Leading Leaders shows readers how to improve your capability to control three key facets of negotiation—interests, voice, and vision—towards advance your power and persuasiveness as a leader. His practical guide scrutinizes the vital role of negotiation in expanding, using, and maintaining leadership within organizations, large and small, public and private. Its purpose is to educate readers on the way to use negotiation to lead effectively. Here are quotes from his book.

  • “Smart, talented, rich, and powerful people require one-on-one leadership, tailor-made leadership, leadership up close and personal.”
  • “Elicit as much relevant information as possible in conducting a one-on-one encounter and strive to interpret that information accurately.”
  • “Lack of authority does not necessarily mean lack of power.”
  • “You find leaders at all levels throughout any organization, whether or not they have an office in the executive suite or a seat on the governing board.”
  • “Failures of an organization to achieve desired results lie as often in mistakes of leadership as in the intractable structure the situation.”
  • “People follow you because they believe it is in their interests to do so.”
  • “The test of leadership is followership.”
  • “Smart, talented, rich, and powerful people require one-on-one leadership, tailor-made leadership, leadership up close and personal.”
  • “The medium you use says things about you and about your relationship with the person you are trying to lead.”
  • “Avoid the tendency to dominate conversations and to talk more than listen, a tendency that has the effect of inhibiting the persons you are trying to lead.”
  • “Use questions to probe the underlying interests of the persons you hope to lead.”
  • “Move your followers to take action by characterizing a problem or challenge in such a way that it is in their interests to do something about it.”
  • “Mere articulation of the vision is not enough. You must convince your followers to accept it.”
  • “Persons you lead will look to you to motivate them, encourage them, and strengthen them to do the right thing for the organization.”
  • “Without creating trust you will find it difficult, if not impossible, to direct, integrate, mediate, educate, motivate, or represent the persons you lead.”
  • “In organizations and groups composed of leaders, each of them is likely to have a quite distinct organizational vision.”
  • “Beware of becoming so intoxicated by your own vision that you fail to see clearly the reservations that members of your organization may have about pursuing that vision enthusiastically.”
  • “You need to find and develop a process that will enable the organization’s members to participate in determining new directions.”
  • “In leading leaders, the most effective instrument is not an order but the right question.”
  • “The follower’s dilemma creates a constant tension between the drive to assert individual interests and the drive to assert organizational interests.”
  • “An organization without a common accepted culture may experience constant conflict, miscommunications, disappointed expectations, and dysfunction.”
  • “You first need to understand the nature of the cultural differences that divide your organization’s members and then seek to find ways to bridge that gap.”
  • “Leaders need to be cheerleaders for the organization both inside and outside.”
  • “A mediator may move a dispute toward resolution by bringing to the situation the skills and resources that the parties themselves lack.”
  • “The more an organization allows its members autonomy of action, the more likely it is that a resolution of conflicts will require mediation.”
  • “A first principle for any leader teacher is to know the persons to be taught; it affects what you teach and how you teach it.”
  • “When you educate leaders, you need to identify their frameworks and figure out how to use them for the educational purposes you want to achieve.”
  • “To the extent that “command and control” leadership does not work with other leaders, seek to rely on “advice and consent” leadership.”
  • “One of your basic tools as an educator of other leaders is not the declarative sentence but the question.”
  • “Leaders usually do not view their professional activities as just a job, but as a profession, a calling, a life-long commitment to an area of endeavor.”
  • “Understanding the interests of the people you lead comes from getting to know those people extremely well, as persons, a process that requires one-on-one interactions.”
  • “Before seeking to convince other persons of the rightness of a particular position, first work hard to convince yourself.”
  • “Motivate your followers by envisioning a future that will benefit them and communicating that future to them in a convincing way.”
  • “You must not only focus your efforts on the people you lead, but also concentrate enormous attention on the world outside your organization.”
  • “One of the most important functions that leadership representation serves is the acquisition of needed resources.”
  • “Don’t confuse trust with friendship. Creating a friendly relationship with people you lead doesn’t automatically mean that they will trust you.”
  • “Persons who trust each other are more likely to achieve a higher level of performance.”
  • “Openness is not just an easy smile or a charming manner; it refers to the process by which you make decisions that have implications for your followers’ interests.”
  • “Developing trust among the people you lead is also an incremental process. They will learn to trust one another through experiences of working together.”
  • “In organizations and groups composed of leaders, each of them is likely to have a quite distinct organizational vision.”
  • “Beware of becoming so intoxicated by your own vision that you fail to see clearly the reservations that members of your organization may have about pursuing that vision enthusiastically.”

Salacuse is Distinguished Professor and Braker Professor of Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University.

Posted in Business and Strategy Management and Leadership Mental Models and Psychology

Master the Principles of Four Arenas of Positive Power

Master the Principles of Four Arenas of Positive Power

Interpersonal influence (also identified as social influence) has transpired when the actions of one or more individuals influence the attitudes or behaviors of one or more other individuals. Relationships prosper or decline in relation to how well the partakers harmonize with one another about important decisions. Some agreements just fortuitously happen, but many of them are the result of the participants influencing one another. Recognizing the principles explained below will make one a better practitioner of influence and also more aware of how one is being influenced.

Successful managers apply each of these principles within four arenas:

  • Personal power. Managers must access the untapped capacity we, individually, have for personal power. Integrating our intellectual, emotional, and physical energies, the arena of personal power, is the groundwork.
  • Interpersonal influence. We can’t achieve organizational goals alone, regardless of how much personal power we have. Personal power does, however, enable us to achieve interpersonal influence. Influence is the impact we have on others simply because we are part of the same system. Such influence is too often undefined and undirected. Interpersonal influence connotes a specific focus of impact; that is, our ability to support others to willingly use their energy on behalf of our goals in ways that get rid of power struggles that waste energy. Instead, the focus is on improving the quality of our relationships to enhance interpersonal influence. This type of influence is pervasive and is necessary for survival. To not take cues from others would be to ignore much of the information that is available about the world.
  • Team synergy. A group is formed anytime people come together to accomplish something. We may call them departments, divisions, work units, teams, task forces, or committees. Meetings are a group activity. Groups must be turned into a source meaningful power. Team synergy, the most potent manifestation of group power, exists when the whole generates more power than the sum of its parts. Turning groups into high-performing, synergetic teams requires creating safe, conflict-competent, empowering groups that learn from differences and make good decisions. Teamwork has always been recognized as the backbone of leadership, but the stresses that team members now are experiencing might be one of the biggest challenges we will need to overcome to continue to think that way. Efficiency, cost-effectiveness, new technology and procedures, and multiple shifts in job responsibilities are permeating our environments during a time when teams are strained and sometimes broken.
  • The infinite organization. The payoff occurs in final arena, The Infinite Organization. In this arena our skills of personal power, interpersonal influence, and team synergy are applied in three areas: leadership and the executive team, structures and policies, and management practices that have created the benefits of the infinite perspective of power and its related principles. The synergy that allows an organization to give information and material and to add value through processes that they each offer is a unique quality. The resulting outcome is far greater than one that any individual could offer independently.

With these tools, managers can create the positive and self-sustaining culture that characterizes an infinite organization. When all three areas are fully developed, aligned, and congruent, the focus, energy, and success of The Infinite Organization will be evident.

Posted in Management and Leadership Mental Models and Psychology

How to Use Power Wisely to Transform People into Partners

Use Power Wisely to Transform People into Partners

Sensitive leadership is not leadership that lacks strength or courage. It is not softness, weakness, or lack of power. It is just the opposite.

Sensitive leadership builds people. A sensitive leader has a heightened awareness to such things as childcare, retirement programs, union issues, safety, motivation, training, career opportunities, fair policies, high standards, and social problems.

When you become sensitive to the pain and suffering of others, you gain not only knowledge, but the wisdom to make a difference. You realize there is more to life than material gain, status, power, and instant gratification. Your sensitivity to future trends keeps you at the forefront of your field, and it gives you the insight to create a vision for your people to follow, build an organization, and improve performance.

To improve the performance of your people and earn their respect, apply these four ideas about sensitivity:

  1. Be sensitive to the power of a positive mental attitude (PMA). Your cheerfulness helps defeat cynicism, fear, futility, and despair. Your PMA will inspire a shared vision and help you enlist others to make a difference. It can calm turmoil, confusion, and chaos. It enables you to uplift people’s spirits and give hope when they feel overburdened or negative. With a PMA, you don’t ignore realities and difficulties, but you do find opportunity in problems. You have an optimistic view.
  2. Be clear about what is important to you. What is your mission? Are your followers enabled by it? What will you do to make a difference? What do you stand for? Performance is enhanced when your vision is clear, and others see how they fit into it.
  3. Recognize where people are (not where you would like them to be, where you think they should be, or where you think their potential lies). If you match your leadership style to someone’s current performance level, you will achieve much better results than you will by trying to make that person fit your preconception.
  4. Lend constructive support. To improve performance, criticize positively, give constructive support, and concentrate on the job, not on the character of the worker. Describe what you want, not how to do it. Also, be courteous and polite. Your leadership style isn’t what you think your style is—it’s what others perceive it to be. Compare your own perception with that of your followers and modulate your activities to suit the situation. The more sensitive you become, the broader your perceptions will become, the more possibilities you’ll see, and the greater difference you will make through your service.

Use Power Wisely

Leaders who make a difference use their power in many situations. They recognize that power is the prime mover of people and events. Yet power is hard to define. Synonyms include: direct authority, influence, hierarchy, rank, superiority, clout, prestige, sway, mastery, and persuasion. We all recognize power when we see it in action. We know powerful people when we are with them, and we know that we need power to lead. Leaders who make the greatest contribution use power wisely.

Leadership requires you to be strong enough to tackle the tough issues and gentle enough to keep the solution humane, demanding enough to challenge others not to settle for easy answers and patient enough to know that progress takes time. Cultivate the wisdom to use power wisely. With power, you can achieve a great deal. Power, well used, energizes people and helps you to earn their loyalty and respect.

There are two kinds of power: power that comes from holding a position and power that comes from within. Personal power is the magnet that draws people to you. It is the energizer that gets things done. Your personal power outlasts your position power; by using these two powers, you can accomplish great things.

Recommended Reading

Posted in Education and Career Management and Leadership

How to Enhance Your Power

How to Enhance Your Power

Here are four ways to enhance our ability to use power wisely:

  1. Teach others to use power wisely and transform them into partners. Teach them to ask the questions, who, what, when, where, and why to evaluate problems. Review problems from an intellectual and emotional standpoint. As you motivate and inspire people to action, you create a partnership because you share power.
  2. Go where the people are. Communicate directly with people. Ensure that others are not intimidated or punished when they express honest opinions. Don’t hide behind titles, office doors, financial successes, or an autocratic demeanor. Be accessible.
  3. Share knowledge. Knowledge shared is knowledge multiplied. When you share knowledge, you empower people to act on their own. Shared knowledge enables people to take a risk, expand an idea, and venture to a new horizon.
  4. Seek opposites. Don’t surround yourself with people who resemble you, who have similar beliefs and biases. Seek contrasts—people who have the skills and abilities you need, not just those who duplicate your talents.

You must use different kinds of power for different people and situations. Learn to be flexible, fair, ethical, and judicious. To be a leader who makes a difference, you must use your power wisely.

Posted in Education and Career Life Hacks and Productivity

Acquire More Power and Influence in Your Organization

Acquire More Power and Influence in your Organization

Would you like to be able to exert a greater influence on your organization? Wish you enjoyed more support from your peers and colleagues? Do your employees sometimes fail to ‘get’ you? Here’s what to do:

  • To establish credibility with your boss, adapt to your supervisor’s style, strengths, and weaknesses. Express an understanding of the challenges your boss faces.
  • To develop the allegiance and backing of your peers and subordinates, invest more time to cultivate relationships with all the people whose cooperation is essential to your own success. To help your organization become more efficient, develop a clear understanding of recurring problems. Then, volunteer to address the root causes of those problems and fix them.
  • Take a broader view of your goals and your organization’s objectives. The more senior your position as, the more important it is to connect your organization to the outside world. Work as a “team-player” who contributes actively to achieving your departmental goals, not just your personal goals.
  • Set the example. Don’t be like the countless other workers who view their jobs as a work avoidance schemes. There’s always work to be done; so making yourself available for it. Not only will this get you recognition as a go-getter, but also this establish you as someone with ambition. In addition, let your staff members and colleagues see you taking the perspective of your supervisors and peers. Invest time in developing successful working relationships with those around you.

Recommended book: ‘Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion’ by Robert B. Cialdini on how one could use psychological techniques of persuasion to influence others into doing things they did not originally plan doing. The six “weapons of influence” are reciprocation, commitment and consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity.

Posted in Education and Career

Seven Tips for Becoming a Better Leader

Tips for Becoming a Better Leader

  • Stop and Listen. Great leaders are great listeners. Listening skills have always been important in the workplace. Employees today want to be heard, contribute, and feel ownership for your organization’s initiatives. They want to be asked for comments on problems and initiatives. Show a genuine interest in what other people are saying. Make people feel as though they are the most important people in the room.
  • Overcome Criticism and Learn from Your Mistakes. Everyone makes mistakes and poor decisions for which they receive criticism. Do not dwell on what went wrong. Instead, focus on what to do next. Spend your energy in determining how to move forward toward finding the answer and solving the problems. Accept personal responsibility for mistakes is the bigger error. Learn from your mistakes and allow them allow it to take you to the next level.
  • Learn to Ask for Help. Most successful people know how and when to ask for help. Most people are inclined to offer help when asked. You will get smart advice. You will get support from others. And, best of all, you will likely make a lot of people feel good that you respected them enough to seek their support and opinions.
  • Learn to Accept Yourself. None of us can ever be faultless. Accept that what is done is done; you are left with yourself exactly as you are. Accept the way you are, and then build on that. There is no need to beat yourself up because we don’t like some bits of yourself. Perhaps you can change lots, but that will come later. Pick yourself up and begin again. Acknowledge that you will fall short from time to time and that you are human.
  • Surround yourself with those that are supportive and smarter than you. Surround yourself with people more interesting than you. Interesting people are uncommon in a world in which conformity and the path of least resistance is the norm. The people you should choose to work with should not only be smarter than you are but also share your determination to succeed.
  • Possess the dogged determination it takes to get stuff done. All the intellect and ideas in the world do not matter until you are determined to get things done. Develop the persistence it takes to manage the difference between what your ideas predict and what actually occurs. The deficiency of carrying plans out is the single biggest obstacle to success, and the cause of much disappointment.
  • Know when to follow a hunch. People have always been intrigued by tales of that flash of knowledge — sixth sense, gut feeling, intuition, whatever you call it — which seems to come from nowhere. As we live our lives, we build a body of knowledge and experience. So, instead of consciously moving through a set of logical steps, we implicitly draw on this deep knowledge of problems and solutions. Leaders have the best hunches about what they know the best. Sometimes those hunches seem to go against logic. Purely rational thinking can lead you only so far. Beyond that, you have to make the leap, trust your intuition and act.
Posted in Management and Leadership