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Six Attitudes of Change

To let an old identity die requires clarity about what has to change, candor about the need for change, and courage to make the change happen. When people internalize a new change, they take ownership for it. It becomes part of who they are. To make the shift from actions to patterns, from actions to individuality, or from checklists to leadership transformation, you need to learn and apply six attitudes:

  1. Focus,
  2. Explore,
  3. Claim,
  4. Decide,
  5. Act, and
  6. Learn.

Leaders observe events, see patterns, think critically and creatively about problems, are self-aware about strengths and weaknesses, try new things, and adjust and improve what they do and how they do it. These six leadership attitudes help you move from the tyranny of to-do lists, events, and programs to the absorption of a new identity.

Culture’s Critical Role in Change Management

Culture's Critical Role in Change Management In recent years, I have lost a lot of weight. People ask me how. Most assume that the weight loss, or change, is tied to a diet and that I will return to my former size. In addition, it means choosing to embark on an enormously costly venture, before a crisis makes it necessary.

Most changes, even those that we know are good and right, do not endure. Best intentions to change performance fall short when diets or programs that we depend on to cause change are not assimilated. Persistent change requires a new identity.

Leaders bow to an innumerable of short-term pressures: intense demands for quarterly earnings, risk aversion, discomfort with ambiguity, and resistance to change, linear extrapolation from experience, and leadership unwillingness to cannibalize established businesses.

We need to change the way we think about change. Sustained change may begin with actions, checklists, and tools, but must evolve to adopting a different identity and assimilating a new way of thinking and acting. Assimilation requires a shift in thoughts and behaving. It becomes a new identity where being and acting occur without thinking.

Making change, an identity shift is simple but not easy. It is simple to say “we have to lose weight” and we need to eat less, eat right, and exercise more. However, it is not easy to do it. To assure sustained change, weight loss must come from a change in identity-letting go of an old identity, admitting personal ownership for the new identity, and turning the actions into patterns, routines, and habits.

To let an old identity die requires leadership clarity about what has to change, candor about the need for change, and courage to make the change happen. When people internalize a new change, they take ownership for it. It becomes part of who they are. Identity shift means that we internalize new attitudes and associated practices so that actions come naturally. Back in 2009, Jim Collins warned in How the Mighty Fall that the greatest risk to companies was no longer complacency but overreach; frenetic, undisciplined change that goes beyond what leaders can manage effectively.

To make the shift from events to patterns, from actions to identity, or from checklists to leadership transformation, you need to learn and apply six attitudes. Each one aligns with a question you need to ask of yourself and your team:

Attitude #1: Focus—Question 1: What do I want?

Focus on Change Management Focus on the desired new identity. A focus sorts, prioritizes, and highlights what matters most. In change, not everything worth doing is worth doing well. Some things that are important to do may simply not be priorities. Some things are so important to do they are worth doing poorly. Having a focus requires that a leader may only have limited priorities that they personally champion; they can sponsor others, but can only own one or two. The key is training. The key understands how to think and look for solutions. It is better to do a few things well than try to do too many things and do them poorly. Good is the enemy of great. Leaders need to address conundrums; they will not always make hard decisions correctly. Moving up in leadership denotes moving on, trusting others to do the detail leadership work, culling the right priorities, and fixating on what distributes the most value.

To determine the focus or priority, ask the simple question, “What do I want?” Knowing what is wanted requires reflecting on what could be done, but then getting clear about what is wanted in the situation. You pass the focus test by reflecting on these questions: Do I know what matters most to: investors, customers, and employees? Can I define what matters most to me? Do I communicate the same priorities in leadership public presentations and my private conversations? Do the agendas I follow for meetings reflect those priorities? Am I clear about what I can do that no one else can do? Am I clear about what I want to be known for? What percent of my time do I spend on things that matter most? Am I easily distracted? Without focus, you try to be all things to all people. Then what matters most happens least.

Attitude #2: Explore—Question #2: What are my options?

Once you know what is wanted, you need to figure out options to get it done. Exploring options means looking for alternatives; seeking people who have counter-intuitive ideas; having forums for dialogue, innovation, and breakthrough thinking; not being locked into conventional ways; exploring what others have done; and investigating with new ideas and learning from those experiments.

Adopt the mantra: Cerebrate sizably voluminous, start minuscule, fail expeditious, learn always. Explore the options for engendering that incipient leadership identity and examining each option.

These questions will help you to explore options: Have I looked inside and outside my industry for best practices and new ideas? Have I tapped into the expertise to accomplish what I desire? Have I assigned creative and talented people to explore leadership options that might work and given them resources and support to generate ideas?

With focus and exploration, you know what you want and explore alternative paths to make it happen.

Attitude #3: Claim—Question #3: What do I think?

Some leaders get lost in the options game. They can see so many ways to do a project that they never get around to doing it. They do not claim a choice or decide on a solution. At some point, leaders need to claim the option that will achieve the focus. Leaders stake, claim, own, and are accountable for their culls. They agnize things that could be done, but claim the unique amalgamation that works best. They take a stand and become kenned for something. The way inhibiting credences kept sales clerks in one industry from engendering incipient leads. They talk publicly and privately about the direction they are headed and the path to get there; they put energy and passion into these paths; they monitor leadership progress; and they gain or lose credibility by the extent to which they accomplish their claim. With a focus, options, and ownership, leaders pass a calendar test of their time, an emotional test of their passion and energy, and a resource test of the investments required to deliver on the option.

To pass these tests, leaders should ensure that the option is congruent with personal values. They must explain not only why the company wants to do something, but also why they personally want to do it.

To claim an option requires personalizing the change and answering the question, “What do I think?” This leadership question internalizes an identity. It makes the identity something that the leader petitions and claims. Ponder these questions: Am I dear about the path I will take to reach my goals? Have I passed the calendar test? Have I dedicated 20 percent of my time in the next 90 days on the option I have chosen? Have I passed the rhetoric test? In every speech, do I find ways to talk about the option and imbue the message with new metaphors, symbols, and images? Have I passed the passion test? Do I put my energy into the path I have chosen? Is my leadership direction and path consistent with what I believe? Do I feel passion for it?

When leaders assert their desires with a focus, explore their options with insight, and claim their path with boldness, they lead. They set an agenda, define a path, and engage others. They forge a new identity for themselves and their organization.

Attitude #4: Decide—Question #4: What decisions do I need to make?

Clarity of Decisions The leader must now decide to make things happen. Clarity of decisions leads to lucent actions, while ambiguity leads to delayed or random acts.

In the absence of decision, clarity, and rigor, actions may be delayed or misguided. A pattern of decisions shapes an identity. A leader chooses how to spend time, who to spend time with, what information to process, what meetings to hold, and what issues to address. Through this pattern of decisions, she creates an identity.

Being clear about decisions and protocols enables leaders to shape an identity. Decisions protocols also turn a direction and path into a set of choices. Just as leadership is a choice, so is the identity that follows from what and how leaders make decisions.

Not all the transmutation that you estimated turned out to be great—meaning every vicissitude did not result in an ecstatic ending. Thoughtful bellwethers ask four questions:

  1. What decisions do I need to make? Leaders focus on the few key decisions they need to make.
  2. Who will make the decision—and who is accountable for the decision?
  3. When will the decision be made? Work expands to fill the time provided. Deadlines generate commitment to action.
  4. How will we make a good decision? This involves knowing the quality level the decision requires, accessing the right information, asking the right people for input, finding out what others have done, testing alternatives, and involving key people.

When people feel heard, they more likely accept the decision. When people know the why they accept the what. However, most other changes later in life had external dependencies. Discretion is an imperative.

As you follow this protocol, you pass the decisiveness and decision test. You not only know what you want, you know the options, which leadership option works best, and the key decisions that will move the change along and shape a new pattern or identity.

Attitude #5: Act—Question #5: What actions do I need to take?

An incipient identity requires incipient actions. We often judge ourselves by our intent, but others judge our identity by our actions. Make actions part of the new identity.

  • Start small. Seek small, first steps. Look for lead customers who might engage in a new project. Look for early adopters of a new idea. Seek many people making small changes.
  • Let go. New identity requires letting go of old actions consistent with an old identity. As old actions are replaced with new ones, others begin to expect the new identity and its actions. As actions accumulate, they become patterns, and a new identity is forged.
  • Involve others. Change requires a social support network. Leaders who act to sustain change will need to surround themselves with those who model the desired changes.

Sustained Change Takes Time

Sustained Change Takes Time Once new directions and opportunities make sense, have the team participate in creating or revising their vision, goals, and milestones, so everyone knows how they connect to the mission. Try this “four 3s” methodology:

  1. 3 hours: What can I do in the next three hours to make progress?
  2. 3 days: What can I do in the next three days to make progress?
  3. 3 weeks: What can I do in the next three weeks to sustain progress?
  4. 3 months: What can I do in the next three months to show progress?

In three months, old patterns may be replaced by new patterns.

Attitude #6: Learn—Question #6: How will I know and grow?

Sustained change requires follow-up, monitoring, and learning. Without indicators to track progress, learning cannot occur. You must weigh in and figure out what helps or hinders your goal. In change, you should probe for early denotements of prosperity by identifying lead designators of what is or is not working. The tracking indicators should lead to insights, improvements, and upgrades.

Leaders observe events, see patterns, think critically and creatively about problems, are self-aware about strengths and weaknesses, try new things, and adapt and improve what they do and how they do it.

Thorough cultural diagnostics can assess organizational readiness to change, bring major problems to the surface, identify conflicts, and define factors that can recognize and influence sources of leadership and resistance.

Six Attitudes of Change

Six Attitudes of Change Management These six attitudes and questions help you move from the tyranny of to-do lists, events, and programs to the leadership assimilation of a new identity.

Trying to execute faster and struggling with the reality that change takes time. Our techniques are too often informed by what worked in the engineering age. We treat humans like machines and expect things to work properly if we just engineer the change properly. The problem, of course, is that people are not machines. More of what you have suggested is necessary for helping people move through the very human process of change.

A worthwhile challenge can be prodigiously incentivizing, as long as it is a veracious description of the leadership situation.

Make use of management techniques that have been shown to reduce threats during tough times, when boardroom conflicts are more likely to arise because of differing perspectives.

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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #7: Bartholomew

The Apostle Bartholomew by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn After Philip was chosen by Jesus, he sought out his close friend Bartholomew and told him, “We have found the one Moses wrote about … and of whom the Prophets also wrote—Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” But Bartholomew said, “Nazareth! Can anything good come from there?” “Come and see,” Philip answered. When Jesus saw Bartholomew approaching, he observed, “This man is a true Israelite, in whom there is nothing false.” “How do you know me?” Bartholomew asked, and Jesus answered, “I saw you while you were still under the fig tree before Philip called you.” Then Bartholomew declared, “Master, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel” (John I: 44–51)

Bartholomew is described in The Apostolic History of Abdias (Bishop of Babylonia ordained by the apostles) as a man of middle height with long curly black hair, large eyes, straight nose, and a thick beard. Always cheerful, he had a voice like a trumpet, and knew all languages. Twenty-six years he wore the same white robe with a purple stripe, and a white cloak; yet the garments never tattered or soiled.

Bartholomew’s ministry belongs to the tradition of the Eastern churches. He traveled to Asia Minor (Turkey), perhaps in the company of Philip, where he labored in Hierapolis. In the region the ancients referred to as India (The term ‘India’ was used indiscriminately to refer to Arabia, Ethiopia, Libya, Parthia, and the Medes.) it is said that “Bartholomew, one of the Apostles” left behind the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew.

Apostle Bartholomew: The Patron Saint of Dermatology

Apostle Bartholomew and the Question of Nathanael’s Identity

In his long life Bartholomew performed many wonderful feats, including the healing of the sick. With the aid of an angel, he banished from a false idol a demon-described as “sharp-faced, with a long beard, hair to its feet, fiery eyes, breath of flames, and spiky wings.” An Apocryphal Gospel of Bartholomew remains to this day.

Apostle Bartholomew synonymous with Nathanael of Galilee The discrepancy between the synoptic material and the Johannine material has been the cause of much speculation over the centuries. The question of Nathanael’s identity has led many to explore further the identity of Bartholomew. Whenever Bartholomew’s name is revealed in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 10:1-4, Mark 3:13-16, and Luke 6:12-16), he is also declared as being in the company of Philip.

  • The Armenian Church claims the holy apostle Bartholomew as their founder. In art he is often depicted beside a chained demon; his symbol is a knife blade.
  • Holy days of Apostle Bartholomew: in the East, June 11; in the West, August 24.
  • Apostle Bartholomew is also known as Nathanael. He is mentioned as Bartholomew, one of “the Twelve” in Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; and Acts 1:13. There is no further mention in the New Testament. However, John I:45 refers to him as Nathanael, which has led theologians to believe that Bartholomew and Nathanael are the same person.

Apocryphal Gospel of Saint Bartholomew

Apostle Bartholomew: The Patron Saint of Dermatology

Bartholomew has long been associated with skin diseases and may be considered the patron saint of dermatology. This characteristic is attributed to one theory concerning his proposed manner of death. When Bartholomew cured the daughter of King Polymios of Armenia, the King adapted Christianity. Consequently, Astyages, the King’s brother, condemned St Bartholomew to be whipped and skinned alive, after which he was crucified upturned.

In the Sistine Chapel, Apostle Bartholomew is portrayed in Michelangelo’s “Last Judgment” as lashed and holding his own skin in his left hand. In Marco d’Agrate’s sculpture of St Bartholomew, found in the Basilica of Santa Maria della Steccata in Parma, Italy, he is represented carrying his skin round his body similar to a coat or blanket. As a consequence of this ghastly history, he has been renowned as the saint of dermatology. This connotation has also gotten him the label of patron saint of tanning, in which animal skin is detached and processed to produce functional goods.

Apostle Bartholomew: The Patron Saint of Dermatology

Little is known about St Bartholomew’s life, other than that he was born in Galilee in the first century and served as one of Jesus’s 12 apostles. Even his correct name is uncertain, as his name can mean “son of Tolmay” or “son of the furrows.” Per se, he is often thought to be synonymous with Nathanael of Galilee, who was introduced to Jesus through his apostle Philip.

Several other stories of St Bartholomew’s death exist, involving one in which he was abducted, beaten, and cast into the sea to drown. Afterward, his body amazingly washed up at Lipari, a small island off the coast of Sicily. Close by, a large piece of his skin and bones were kept as relics at the Cathedral of St Bartholomew the Apostle. Over time, this church opened a medical facility, and St Bartholomew’s name and relics became associated with medicine and skin disease.

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Career Success Depends on Your Ability to Motivate Individuals and Teams to Get the Right Results

Nothing leaders do is more significant than getting results. But you can’t get many results by yourself—you need people to help you. And the best way to have others help you is by motivating them to accomplish results. The old paradigm, which says revenue growth and shareholder-value growth are interrelated, does not go far enough toward clarifying how the best companies produce value. Try using these three motivation principles.

Principle #1 of Motivation: Motivation is Material Accomplishment

Ways to Increase Employee Motivation “Motivation” has common roots with “motor,” “momentum,” “motion,” and “mobile.” These words represent movement and action. Motivation isn’t about what people think or feel but what they do. When motivating people to get results, challenge them to take those actions that will achieve desired results.

You will be more competitive when your people, instead of being ordered to go from point A to point B, want to go from point A to point B. They will “want to” when they believe in your leadership. This predisposition cannot be helped because of indispensable variances in the program designers’ backgrounds. But eventually, a single approach is too constricted. To design learning experiences that work, leadership training will have to integrate more meritoriously all four approaches into a solitary program. Consequently, leadership training has budged toward teaching managers and executives how to expect what is on their industry skyline and how to mobilize their organization to shape the future.

The first step in conscripting their belief in your leadership is for you believe in them and to value the work they do. Express your belief that they can get the results you are asking of them. Tell them how much you appreciate their hard work. For many companies, leadership training then basically befalls a quick-fix answer to greater problems.

But believing is not enough. Motivation means people take the precise actions they need to take to make happen what you want to have happen. Encourage people to write down three precise things that they need from you to help them get increased results.

Principle #2 of Motivation: Motivation is Propelled by Emotion

The Meaning of Motivation in Management Emotion and motion come from the same Latin root meaning “to move”. When you want to move people to take action, engage their emotions. People need a strong emotional commitment (motivation) to take action and realize the goal. The key is to visualize the future as having numerous possibilities and to develop intuition about relative probability by revealing ourselves to a wide gamut of successes and failures.

When I explained this to the chief marketing officer of a services company, he said, “Now I know why we’re not growing! We (senior leaders) established our marketing strategy in a bunker! He showed me his 40-page strategy document. The points were logical, consistent, and all-inclusive. It made perfect sense—to the senior leaders. But it did not make experiential sense to the people who had to carry it out. Since they had no input into the strategy, they disrupted the implementation in many innovative ways. Only when people are motivated—emotionally committed—to functioning the strategy, does it have a chance to succeed.

Principle #3 of Motivation: Inspiration is What Others Do to Themselves, Not What You Do to Them

You and I can’t motivate anybody to do anything. The people we want to motivate can only motivate themselves. The motivator and motivatee are always the same person. Leaders communicate, but individuals must motivate themselves. So, our “motivating” others to get results really entails our creating an atmosphere in which they can motivate themselves to get those results. On top of that, there is the very important role of setting direction and in communicating that direction.

Create the Right Climate to Motivate Employees For example, one leader almost encountered a mutiny when he presented next year’s goals—numbers much higher than the previous year’s goals. The staff went ballistic. “You expect us to get much higher numbers? No way!” He told me. “I know we can hit those numbers. I just have to get my people motivated!” I recommended that he create an environment in which his people could motivate themselves. So, he had them measure what activities got results. They discovered that they spent 60 percent of their time on work that had nothing to do with getting results. He then had them develop a plan to eliminate the pointless work. Once in charge of their own destiny, they got motivated! They established a great plan and started to get great results.

A good number of leadership programs have a half-life of a few days or weeks after the conferences close. Few have established passable transfer mechanisms to bring leadership skills back alive to the office, and most are captives of a single pedagogic method that imitates the teaching of their instructors.

Create the Right Climate to Motivate Employees

At the moment, there are adequate incentives for people to perform, based on the recognition that they accomplish what we thought they should to achieve. The point is that there are people to talk to who have an in-depth, long-term appreciation of the company and who know what is really going on.

Your career success depends on the ability of managers to motivate individuals and teams to get the results. The best ways to recognize others and celebrate accomplishments is best done by:

# setting high standards,

# discovering people doing things right,

# being innovative with rewards,

# acknowledging others in public, and

# personalizing rewards.

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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #6, Philip

Saint Philip the Apostle, Peter Paul Rubens' famous Apostle Series (Prado Museum in Madrid)

The name of holy apostle Philip derives from Greek, signifying “he who loves horses.” He was a resident of Bethsaida.

It seems this gentle man had a distinct relationship with the Greek-speaking Gentiles in the society. When they wanted to meet Jesus, he was contacted first. Distrustful his own assessment in the matter, Philip turned to Andrew, who took him to tell Jesus of the request.

On the occasion of the miracle of the loaves and fishes to test Philip, Jesus enquired him where they would get enough food to feed 5,000. Philip, thinking in pragmatic terms, answered, “Half a year’s wages wouldn’t buy enough bread for everyone to have a bite.” (John 6:7).

In John 14:8–9, Philip invited Jesus to reveal the Father, obtaining the answer, “Have I been with you so long, and yet you do not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father.” In later legends, he was often mistaken with St. Philip the Evangelist (Philip the Deacon), one of the seven deacons of the primitive church (Acts 6:5)

Philip replied Jesus’ call (“Follow me”), and was involved in the call of St. Nathanael (probably St. Bartholomew the Apostle), whom he brought to Jesus.

St. Philip by Giuseppe Mazzuoli. Nave of the Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome).Apart from these facts, nothing more is identified about the Apostle.

If as a vigorous apostle he lacked confidence, Philip mellowed, becoming an stimulated speaker and healer. After Pentecost, tradition tells that for twenty years he lived and preached in Scythia, and then in Asia Minor at Hierapolis, which in Greek means “Holy City.” His sister Miriam and his four daughters joined him in propagandizing the word of God.

When Philip the apostle went forth from Galilee, a widow was carrying out for burial her only child, who was all she had. Now the apostle was very concerned in his soul when he saw the poor old woman slashing out her hair and mutilating her face. He said to her: “What religion was your son practicing when he died so young?”

Hierapolis Tomb of the apostle Philip, Archive of the Italian Archaeological Mission to HierapolisToday Philip’s tomb can be found within the ruins of the Turkish city of Hierapolis. There, a constructive mineral spring of warm sparkling water pours forth from the rocks, establishing an enormous crystal clear falls that cascades over the side of a mountain, a wonder nearly as large as the Niagara. In Biblical times it was a famed spa, visited by the sick from all over the Near and Middle East. Looking out at the remains of this ancient city, it is easy to imagine Philip carrying out his ministry with his family. Undeniably, legend tells that once the tombs of his daughters, all prophetesses and well-known in the church during the first and early second centuries, could be discovered in Hierapolis as well. In Hierapolis two alphabetic oracles have been found, one, very fragmented, built into the Martyrium of Philip, the other, preserved almost complete, on a former statue pedestal that was reused in the foundation of the temple of Apollo.

  • In medieval art Philip’s symbol when not loaves of bread is a tall cross.
  • Holy days: in the East, November 14; in the West, May 1. May 1 is jointly with James the Younger; later transferred by the Roman Catholic church to May 3. The feast of the Apostle St. Philip, together with that of St. James the Less, was celebrated in the West on May 1 until 1955, when it was transferred to May 11; the Greeks celebrate it on May 14.
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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #5, Matthew

The Inspiration of Saint Matthew by Caravaggio

In the Gospel according to Matthew, we are told that Jesus saw a man named Matthew/Levi meeting at the tax collector’s booth. “Follow me,” he advised him, and Matthew got up and shadowed Jesus. (Matthew 9:9)

Jesus totaled among his disciples persons of generally distinctive backgrounds. They encompassed not only Matthew, a previous representative of the Roman government, but Simon the Zealot (not to be mistaken for Simon Peter). The Zealots were obsessive nationalists, determined to smoke out the Romans by paramilitary campaigns, ambushes, killings, terrorist methods, or whatsoever worked. Their maxim was, “No king but Messiah, no tax but the Temple, no friend but the Zealot.” It is not clear that Simon was, or had been, a member of the group, but it seems clear that he would have regarded himself as at the opposite end of the political spectrum from Matthew.

Convention suggests that Matthew/Levi, son of Alphaeus, is the brother of the holy apostle James, son of Alphaeus. As a tax collector for the Romans he was considered a pariah by his own people. In the first century, such bureaucrats were often known to be subject to graft and dishonesty. Christ’s teaching activity is carefully made the warp and woof of the first gospel.

In the early Christian writings of Miscellaneous, Clement of Alexandria tells us Matthew left everything behind to follow Jesus and became a vegetarian, only eating seeds, nuts, and vegetables. And let all the bars be marked with a line round them at one end. Definitely it was such faithful devotion that earned him a position as one of the twelve apostles.

Since Matthew’s Gospel presents the indispensable truths of the Christian faith in impressively persuasive and exquisite ways, it will prove to be a great cure for doctrinal anemia. These premises of Matthew emphasize Jesus’ identity as the Deliverer who rescues God’s people from their sins, the King who rules over God’s kingdom, the Founder of a new chosen people, and God with us acting to make his people new.

Evangelist Matthew and the Angel by Rembrandt After Jesus’ Resurrection, Matthew remained in Palestine, sermonizing in Jerusalem. In Matthew’s story, Jesus’ disciples had obviously not stored up grain the day before. But a time came when he and the other apostles dispersed to seek converts in distant lands. The numerous sorts of wood are supposed to be dry. Previous to Matthew departed on his proselytizer journey, tradition suggests that many followers urged this gifted writer to set down from memory the acts and teachings of Jesus. It is said that Matthew realized their request, achieving his gospel some eight years after the Ascension of Jesus. Matthew’s Jesus strongly declares his personal sovereignty, he does not appear to be the primary referent for the neuter comparative pronoun properly translated.

There are many legends of Matthew’s ministry to kings and other high government officials. His education in early life and his talent for proselytization must have enabled him to present Jesus’ teachings to leaders and other important people in the remote regions he visited. Early folklore states that he visited Persia and possibly Macedonia, Syria, Parthia, Media, and Ethiopia. Everywhere Matthew led his ministry, the said exterior parts are each equal to the same constant quantity. Though providing no neat formula or program for reproducing Jesus’ hermeneutics, Matthew does leave us an essential clue to fathoming Jesus’ voice.

  • The holy apostle Matthew has frequently been portrayed in art with a bag of coins, at a desk with an angel, holding a pen and inkwell, or money box. In art he is represented with a spear in his hand—an allusion to his martyrdom. His symbol as evangelist is a winged man. His relics are said to have been found at Salerno in 1080.
  • Holy days: November l6 in the Eastern churches; and September 2l in the West.
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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #4, John the Evangelist

John the Evangelist. Engraving by A.H. Payne after C. Dolci.

In the Fourth Gospel, John is never mentioned by name, but holy tradition recognizes him as the author and unidentified apostle in the text “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” (John I 9:26)

It is further believed that John, son of Zebedee and the younger brother of James the Elder, came from a prosperous family. Like Andrew, John may have been a devoted follower of John the Baptist before becoming Jesus’ disciple. (John I:34–40) With Peter, Andrew, and his older brother, John left his fishing nets when Jesus called them to follow him.

The holy apostle seems to have been one of Jesus’ beloved companions. During the Last Supper, John sat in the privileged seat at Jesus’ right. Later, he was present in court at Jesus’ trial; possibly John was permitted because his wealthy family was known to the chief priests.

In Jesus’ final hours he called to John from the cross, asking him to take care of Mary, Jesus’ mother (John 19:26–27.) As one of the first to see the empty tomb, John’s faith was steadfast, for he tells us ” … he saw, and believed” (John 20:8)

This gentle, modest apostle rose to a position of great respect within the church. In due course, moving from Jerusalem to Ephesus in Asia Minor, he became pastor of the church in that large city, and held influence over other churches in the area. Since the fourth century, there has been a strong belief that John brought Jesus’ mother with him to Ephesus, where she stayed until her death.

St John the Evangelist by Domenichino - National Gallery, LondonJohn was banished to the Greek island of Patmos during the persecution under the Emperor Domitian (81–96 CE), where, according to tradition, John is recognized the authorship of the Book of Revelations, and three Catholic epistles besides the Fourth Gospel. From these writings we learn that he lived a long life, and thus witnessed and achieved the rise of the early Christian era. The last of the twelve to join his master in heaven, folklores say John died peacefully in Ephesus at an advanced age in the year A.D. 100.

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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #3, James the Elder

Saint James as the Moor-killer by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest

The early church referred to the holy apostle James as “James the Elder” or “James the Great” to differentiate him from “James the Younger” or “James the Less,” the son of Alphaeus, who was purportedly a smaller and definitely a younger man.

We can imagine James the Elder as a robust, impressive figure, with piercing eyes, a full beard, and a resonant voice that must have commanded respect.

The son of Zebedee, a affluent fisherman, James was the older brother of John, and a partner of Peter‘s in business. Jesus called James and John Boanerges, meaning “Sons of Thunder” in Greek, for their enthusiastic zeal (Mark 3:17.) Once when the innkeepers in a Samaritan village declined accommodations to Jews, the irritated brothers asked Jesus to call down fire from the heavens to avenge the affront. But Jesus refused, saying, ” … the Son of man is not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them.” (Luke 9:56)

Holy Scripture describes James, John, and Peter as Jesus’ favorite apostles; those in his inner circle. Some consider the brothers were the Lord’s close relatives and that Peter was their dear friend. These three were present when Jesus raised from the dead the young daughter of Jairus, the synagogue president. They were also with Jesus at the unique revelation on the Mount of Transfiguration; and during the long night in the Garden of Gethsemane.

Saint James the Great by Guido Reni, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston After Pentecost, James’ name disappeared from the gospels. Some very olden traditions dating back to the earliest centuries try to explain his absence. It is said that in the years following Jesus’ Resurrection James travelled to Sardinia and Spain to preach the word of the Lord before returning to Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages the holy apostle James the Elder was one of the most well-liked figures in Christian Spain, and his patronage was invoked in time of war. His symbol is the sword or the bishop’s hat, for he is claimed as the first bishop of Spain.

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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #2 Andrew

The Crucifixion of St. Andrew, by Mattia Preti, Art Gallery of South Australia

Today the lush hillsides and blue waters of Galilee are virtually unchanged since Biblical times, when the holy apostle Andrew lived and worked as a fisherman. Andrew was the first apostle whom Jesus chose. His brother was Simon, whom Jesus later renamed Peter.

Fascinated in the spiritual life, the young Andrew seems to have left his fishing nets to follow John the Baptist. He walked for miles to find this holy prophet expounding at the Jordan River. After Andrew was baptized by the prophet, there came among them looking for baptism, Jesus of Nazareth.

When John the Baptist saw Jesus, he turned the attention of the crowd toward this solitary figure and said, “Behold the Lamb of God … ” (John 1:29–30.)

Andrew knew that he must seek Jesus out, and he brought his brother Peter, and later Philip to meet Jesus. Though Andrew, Peter, their young cousin John, and Philip were not yet apostles, they escorted Jesus and his mother to the wedding feast at Cana. (John 2:1–11) There they saw him achieve the miracle that changed water into wine. They returned home and took up their trade as fishermen, until Jesus came one day to summon them, saying, “Follow me and I will make you fishers of men.” (Matthew 4:18–20)

Saint Andrew - Apostle and Patron Saint of Scotland Andrew took the lad with the five loaves and two fish to Jesus. And he assisted in the distribution of the food once Jesus miraculously multiplied the small provisions so that the crowd of 5,000 would have more than enough to eat. (John 6:1–14) He is listed as an apostle in the Acts of the Apostles; it is the last record we have of him in the New Testament.

Presently, the apostle Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland; his cross in the shape of an X is the symbol of the country. He is also declared as patron saint by Orthodox Christians and of fishermen. He is also the patron saint of Greece, Russia, Amalfi (Italy), singers, spinsters, fishmongers, fishermen, gout and sore throats.

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Get to Know the 12 Disciples of Jesus Christ: Apostle #1, Peter

Repentance of St. Peter by Jusepe de Ribera, Oil on canvas, Spain, 17th century, State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Holy Scripture identifies Peter the first of all the apostles, though Peter, a modest fisherman, never put himself first. In many ways the holy apostle is most like us, for his compound nature exposes him to be very human; he is passionate and loyal, cowardly and courageous.

Once called Simon, he was given the name Peter (meaning rock) by Jesus, who said of him, “Upon this rock I will build my church.” (Matthew I 6:13-19)

Jesus moreover told Peter at the Last Supper that he would deny him. Peter loved his master, yet that night, after Jesus’ arrest by the temple soldiers, a terrified Peter swore three times he did not know Jesus. Then he recalled Jesus’ prediction and was almost driven to misery for his timidity. Unlike Judas, the apostle who betrayed Jesus, Peter deeply atoned and was pardoned.

Following the Resurrection, Jesus appeared to his apostles. On one such occasion he was by the Sea of Galilee as they were out fishing. Identifying him, they swiftly turned their boat toward the shore. But Peter was too impatient and eager— spontaneously he jumped into the water and swam to his master. (John 21:1–8.) Whilst all the rest were filled with the greatest joy to see Jesus, Peter alone seems to have been driven by his brash heart.

Symbols of St. Peter, the Apostle: Keys, Cockerel at Holy Trinity Church, Hildersham, UK After Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit descended upon the apostles rousing them to preach the word of God, Peter and the others endangered their lives everyday going about their master’s work. In the Acts of the Apostles we discover that it wasn’t long before Peter was imprisoned, but as he lay asleep in his cell, an angel of the Lord came and liberated him.

The location of Peter and Andrew’s house is still marked today. A church was built on the site in A.D. 352. Later it was substituted by a basilica, and excavators unearthed two ancient fish hooks and a small axe for cutting stone. Possibly the fish hooks and axe belonged to Peter and his brother.

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