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Serve Life Than Fight Death

Positive Labor of Improving Health

Positive Labor of Improving Health The struggle against evil in. We and evil in our environment is often disheartening. We find these evils too firmly entrenched to prevail against. However, have you ever tried to alter the tactics you use in this struggle? Have you ever tried, instead of attacking evil to strengthen goodness, which is its opposite?

Our most effective defense against disease lies not in fighting germs and toxins, but rather in the positive labor of improving health. A well-nourished and well-rested body can automatically resist the challenging adversary. The scales are always swaying between life and death. We can tip them in favor of life by increasing the elements, which preserve life, so that the power of death is automatically curtailed.

It is more efficacious to serve life than to fight death. He who is orientated to the negative task of fighting against evil, sickness, and death has anchored himself in the swamp, and its foul odors will often depress him, but he who has set his heart to the positive service of extending life, faces the clean, open spaces that will exhilarate his spirit.

This is theory, but it is theory justified by experience. If you have wronged your fellow man, you will regain his goodwill by making up for that misdeed with overtures of kindness and friendship. The effort to undo what has already been done would be ineffective, and to persist would only cause growing anxiety. The foul air is withdrawn automatically when the windows are opened and the dear air blows in. There is no need to mobilize our energies in a positive campaign to expel the foul air.

As I consider myself, as I look at my world, I am often depressed. How deeply entrenched are the evils which depress me! What shall I do? Shall I organize a campaign to undo every thoughtless word or deed of mine? Shall I set myself to disprove every lie, to answer every word of malice spread in the world? Shall I reach out to seize and restrain the hand of every evildoer?

It is an impossible task. However, I can serve my cause by positive deeds of goodness and truth. In addition, He who ultimately judges and weighs the actions of men will know how to balance the scales. The realm of evil will recede by itself as the realm of goodness extends its sway.

We do not need to fight against darkness. When we kindle a light, the darkness is automatically vanquished.

Our Emotional Circumstance Affects Our Social Life

Our Emotional Circumstance Affects Our Social Life Arranging a successful out-of-state hunt takes preparation. Nonetheless, life is grueling in the Arctic barren grounds, even for bears, and they cannot be fussy. Likewise, our emotional circumstance affects our social life. If we are depressed or angry, it makes it difficult to build healthy friendships. Conversely, if we have deep, meaningful friendships, it can contribute to our emotional well-being. David DeSteno, a professor of psychology at Northeastern University, writes,

There’s a very small difference between rational and rationale—one letter. … It’s rationality that can lead people to cheat and behave in immoral ways because they can justify for themselves why it’s okay for them. And, underlying that are emotional impulses that are pushing them to behave in the moral way that reason kind of tamps down and overrides.

Difficulty was, rather than having one large, consistent system, the induction was locally strong in some places, weak in others. This is where most groups go wrong. They settle on just getting warm bodies. I look for a dedication of purpose and a proven strength. Both these people are well known as confabulators among their friends and acquaintances. The curiosity of the evidence of numerical truths is that all the disputation is on one side. If you do not know how to practice selective watering in your own garden, then you will not have enough sapience to help water the flowers in the garden of your beloved. By penalizing old-fashioned ethics in this way, you do not make toleration of the new morality more likely.

By this contraption, the whole column of the bones acts directly against the load, and an immense weight is thus sustained. We have to discover the art of creating happiness. All the same, you keep your people healthy. In this enlarged sense of spiritual knowledge, to make its grandness to the happiness of humankind appear, let us consider man.

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Highest Variety of Religious Belief

Subtle Forces Contribute to Our Freedom

Subtle Forces Contribute to Our Freedom A number of subtle forces contribute to our freedom. One of them is the fact of our limitations.

There is a common notion that to be free means to have the capacity of moving in any direction, without impediment or interference. However, this is not altogether true. The young man, who stands before the crossroads of his life, with many vocational opportunities beckoning him, is not free. Too many pressures are crushing him. He becomes free when he has resolved his dilemma and has accepted some limitation upon his life.

True freedom lies in expanding sufficiently to allow the fulfillment of one’s possibilities. However, growth can occur only in a particular direction. Among the conditions of freedom is the elimination of diversions, of distracting influences that would detour us away from the main course of our lives. Marriage commits a man to a particular woman. In that sense, it is a limitation, which contributes to freedom, for it, releases a man from pursuing every attractive woman who crosses his path.

Life offers too many possibilities. The attempt to pursue them all would spell a tragic dissipation of our strength and frustrate our hope of great achievement. The elimination of alternatives, the reduction of our goals to manageable proportions, is a true prerequisite of freedom. Life can be free only when it is lived within a boundary.

Pleasures of a More Immaterial Kind

Pleasures of a More Immaterial Kind That is why exercise is about turning around, reconditioning, getting out of that mind-state, and discovering a radically dissimilar kind of happiness that is not so vulnerable, that does not lead to endless dissatisfaction. Even so, moral philosophy is simply a basis for making individual decisions, and to each his own. Ramon Alcoberro, Professor of Ethics at the Universitat de Girona, once wrote,

In addition (apparently this is known as the “Pareto optimum’), it turns out that from a certain level of use of a good, the pleasure to be obtained from that good begins to decline dangerously, to the extent that an increase in accumulation does not necessarily lead to greater happiness. In other words, if we have one jumper, buying or otherwise obtaining another one will double our sense of well-being; but when someone has thirty jumpers, getting a new one does not make them any happier and, at most, means they will have problems finding somewhere to put it. ….

The question …. is very simple: once you have obtained a certain level of well-being or happiness, is it worth striving for more, or would it not be better to live a more relaxed life devoted, perhaps, to pleasures of a more immaterial kind or, at least, to ones which are difficult to express in quantifiable terms?

When I am trusting and being myself as fully as possible, everything in my life reflects this by falling into place easily, often miraculously. All my life through, the new sights of nature made me triumph like a child. Voting is like a step function its differential coefficient is zeroing so fringy behavior is irrelevant.

Hence, it is exactly among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest variety of religious belief and were in many cases considered by their contemporaries as atheists, sometimes too as saints. It makes everyone feel well heeled. The one conversation rule provides just tolerable structure that people know where they fit. They know what is expected and do not feel the need to strike or grandstand.

As persona to be used for timelessness must be formed in time and in good time, so good habits to be used for happiness in this lifespan must be formed early on; and then they will be a treasure to be sought after in the house of the wise, and an oil of life in their home. Everything was turned upside down. More money will be raised in this fashion than by the common method of compensating for the short allowance account, by making it collectable at bone, and the humble extra expense is no thoughtfulness in comparing to the wellness of the men.

They cannot comprehend what it is to do for them: how should they? If they could see what it would do for them, it could not be originality. While taking the word in the sublimated sensation we shall maintain images and meanings, which are associated with the substantial sense.

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Compatibility in the Face of Differences

Compatibility in the Face of Differences

Tension of Adjustment

Tension of Adjustment There is bound to be a measure of misunderstanding in every human-relationship, for even the most, ideally mated friends are distinct individuals, with unique mind and outlook on the world. Although reacting to the same experiences, we are bound to show different responses. From those differing responses, arise occasional clashes of temperament, which produce bitterness and strife.

An ideal relationship is not one in which clashes never occur. Such a relationship is impossible; if it pretends to exist anywhere, it is because one individual entering the relationship is not truly himself. He may have suppressed his individuality for that of his more dominant partner, but one who lives in servility cannot fulfill the highest role of a mate, whether in friendship or in marriage, which is not only to commend but also to reprove; not only to acclaim but also to challenge. Common values, however, not inevitably enough to create a friendship, if values are too diverging, it is unmanageable for a friendship to flourish. The noblest mate is not one whose voice is an echo of our own; it is one whose voice blends with ours, while speaking with the uninhibited resonance of a free individual in action.

With mindful breathing, they get calm, and they can be in touch with the wonders of life usable in the present moment.

An ideal relationship is one where compatibility is achieved in the face of differences, where the two voices speaking in different tones are adjusted to blend in harmony, for the precise meaning of harmony is the readiness of differing elements to seek a higher unity by complementing each other instead of competing with each other. In addition, if occasional clashes occur, true comrades on life’s journey do not become alarmed, since such clashes are, for them, the tensions of adjustment rather than the explosions of open war.

Restraining Violence and Killing

Restraining Violence and Killing

The only chastity a character needs to possess between hardcover, even if he bears a real person’s name, is vitality: if he comes to life in our imaginations, he passes the trial. In reality, when you feel low-spirited, lonely, betrayed, or any undesirable feelings, this is a significant moment on the religious path. This is where real transmutation can take place. The British academic philosopher Simon Blackburn writes in Being Good: a Short Introduction to Ethics,

Every society that is recognizably human will need some institution of property (some distinction between ‘mine’ and ‘yours’), some norm governing truth-telling, some conception of promise-giving, some standards restraining violence and killing. It will need some devices for regulating sexual expression, some sense of what is appropriate by way of treating strangers, or minorities, or children, or the aged, or handicapped. It will need some sense of how to distribute resources, and how to tread those who have none. In other words, across the whole spectrum of life, it will need some sense of what is expected and what is out of line.

The steelyard is an instrument of this variety, contrived for weighing bodies by an individual weight, whose velocity or distance from the airplane propeller, we increase in proportion to the weight unit to be known. As the air is thus capable of the most flexible enlargement, so is it also of being pressed into a small compass. The inherent aptitude of everything is to move away from pain and toward delight. Nevertheless, extravagant rigorousness is no less harmful. This would have the happiest effect upon their welfare, by allowing them to have complete rest, and to get exhaustively dry.

When we are continually moved by looking for the next experience and the next delight, it is like going from one mirage to another. That kind of trust pulls us in the direction of death. When you rely on what you know, you are perpetually relying on a map, which, as soon as it is drawn, has begun to depart from the territory it intended to describe, which life is. Neither could the prohibition be censured as spiritual persecution. The indebted countries are then constrained to privatize their public resourcefulness. I think of a very extraordinary echo, at a destroyed fortress near Louvain, in Flanders.

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The Measure of Responsibility

The Measure of Responsibility

Moderation in All Things

Moderation in All Things We need moderation in all things—even in our virtues. It is good to have a sense of responsibility, but if carried too far it will destroy our peace.

No man can carry the world on his shoulders. Our responsibility is limited by our capacity. Even our own private world often presents problems, which we cannot readily handle. A person must do his best under all circumstances, and leave the rest to God. When we have done this, we should be content. The outcome is not in our hands; and we cannot assume responsibility for it.

Some of us feel that it is incumbent upon us to safeguard our future, or the future of our children. We want to make plans that will reach far ahead into time and build round our vital interests a fortification, which will make us impregnable to circumstances. In addition, when we discover that we cannot do so, we become disturbed with a sense of insecurity.

Some of us have committed our energies in the service of some good cause, which has come to possess us. We would like to transform the world into the image of our ideal, but we find ourselves frustrated. The world will not listen, will not understand. Then, we may retreat, broken hearted by defeat, or we break ourselves, trying to do the impossible.

However, a man’s responsibility does not extend to such extremes. We were meant to live with a measure of uncertainty. We cannot provide for tomorrow in tomorrow’s entirety. When we have done the best we can, we must have faith that He Who gives us a new day will also give us the sustenance thereof. And we must have faith too that the cause which is so dear to us will not necessarily fail because at present the world appears indifferent to it. There will be others who will try again, another day.

You are not free to desist from the work; but it is not incumbent on you to finish it

Narrowly Defined Customization and Academic Freedom

Narrowly Defined Customization and Academic Freedom Unable to compete with the propinquity of television, cable and then the Internet, newsmagazines have been moving for decades in the focus of analysis, commentary and news-related feature articles. The whole chronicle of humankind shows, that spiritual belief is no inconsiderable rationale of action. In other words, should be flat. An instrument of this kind might be utilitarian in kitchens, to reflect, and thus double the heat of their fires. In this, as in all the rest, we have only to increase the space between the strength and property, to give the man that works the tool greater power: the cause has been already explained at large. Friendships were formed with the other volunteers and master archaeologists as we divided up lunch in the field and dinner at the campground, swapped stories and discoveries, and studied the scientific method and natural history. Journalist Vanessa Spedding writes,

If we belong somewhere, we feel nourished and safe, naturally ourselves, free to receive and to give. If we belong somewhere we are in a relationship with the place and its inhabitants: we develop a sense of affection for it, love even. If we belong somewhere, as Paul Kingsnorth says, we will defend it.

Belonging can provide armory against the heartless travesties of exploitation and destruction meted out by the indifferent, detached institutions and processes of profit and development. Belonging, then, can form the basis for peace, equanimity, and the sustenance of life.

Such narrowly defined customization is of course inconsistent with academic freedom, but exclusively in line with political correctness. The reality is that for many of us family was the incubator of desperation rather than the dependable, nurturing harbor the myth promised. In beautiful nature no capture can they find, the pleasures they follow a sting leave behind. Time unquestionably makes more of a remainder for remedial tasks. How the old man may know he is in health? Those who drink a great quantity of tea, and are regardless in the making it, using a bad kind, and drinking the last dishes cool and palled, will emphatically weaken their stomachs: but this is not the case with such as are more careful. I would not want to be an optimist because when I fell I would fall such a frightfully long way.

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Glimpses of History #12: Judaism

Judaism is a monotheistic, scriptural religious conviction that evolved from the religion of ancient Israel during the Second Temple period (516 BCE–70 CE.)

Two fundamental beliefs shaped the attitude of Judaism toward nature and toward the systematic study of nature (that is to say, science):

  1. that God is the creator of the universe
  2. that God revealed God’s will in the form of Law—the Torah (literally “instruction”)—to the chosen people, Israel.

Judaism: History, Belief and Practice

Biblical accounts and archaeological findings are roughly in agreement: there were once two adjoining kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel to the north, sharing the same monotheistic belief. Whether, as the Bible asserts, Judah fell on account of tolerance of other gods is unidentified: modern thinking is that it was a vassal state of Assyria. As a result, Babylon’s king Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Judah’s capital, Jerusalem (and its temple) around 600 BCE, with a fraction of its inhabitants taken into captivity. This separation motivated the formalization of the Tanakh, Jewish scriptures: much had already been written, but the canon was set at this period and shows signs of Babylonian cultural domination.

Much of the populace, though, had been left in Israel, causing dispute when Persian conqueror Cyrus the Great took Babylon and allowed the exiles to return to the Levant and rebuild their temple. Subsequently, Israel and Yehud (past Judah) would become more and more self-reliant, gaining independence again in the second century BCE under the Maccabees (the Selucid empire, who had succeeded the Babylonians, were failing). After the celebrated general Pompey invaded in 63 BCE, the area became Roman.

Following a great Jewish revolt, the second temple was destroyed in the Roman sack of Jerusalem in 70 CE, but Jewish opposition to the Roman empire continued sporadically until 136 BCE, when the Bar Koziba rebellion against the aggressively antisemitic Emperor Hadrian led to the disbanding of Israel and the Diaspora (pan-European migration of Jews). Others had moved eastwards in Roman times, becoming convenient contacts for the Abbasid caliphate and Convivencia-era Spain, and later Venice and the Ottoman empire.

Talmudic observations and rabbinical lore would become vital foundations of a faith without a homeland. Christianity, for the meantime, was regarded as an derivative of Judaism until Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea in CE 325.

As Europe adopted Christianity, emigrant Jews became opportune all-purpose hate-figures; the Black Death was blamed on them and Tsarist pogroms forced many from east Europe and Russia to America and east London in the late 19th century. This movement, culminating in the Holocaust, led to the creation of the modern state of Israel in 1948.

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Seven Root Causes for Poor Employee Engagement

Seven Root Causes for Poor Employee Engagement

Here are seven root causes-factors that cause employees to disengage and leave:

  1. They found the job or workplace to be different than what they had expected when hired.
  2. They were not well matched or challenged in the jobs for which they had been hired, or to which had been assigned or promoted.
  3. They received too little coaching and feedback from their supervisor.
  4. They perceived few prospects for professional growth and advancement.
  5. They felt undervalued or underrecognized, either through lack of informal acknowledgement of their contributions, feeling underpaid, not feeling “in the loop,” not having their input sought, not having the right tools.
  6. Feeling stressed or burned-out due to overwork or life-work imbalance.
  7. Loss of trust and confidence in senior leaders.

These seven causes are not the reasons most employees give in exit interviews. Departing employees typically respond with the answers their leaders prefer to hear-better pay or opportunity. Through such denial, managers never learn what they need to avoid or correct the real causes of disengagement and turnover.

Most managers believe employees leave mainly because of “pull factors”-pay and opportunity. However, Saratoga’s research concludes that 80 percent are motivated to leave because of these seven “push factors.”

Managers and leaders may not want to acknowledge the real reasons employees leave-since all seven are factors they can influence directly.

The good news is first that some turnover is desirable. Second, between the time employees become disengaged and the point when they leave, there is time and opportunity to re-engage them. Third, if we know why employees disengage and leave, then we also know why they stay and engage. Fourth, since only about 12 percent of employees leave mainly because of their pay, the things we need to do to re-engage most employees are relatively inexpensive, requiring mostly the time and attention of direct managers, the support of HR, and the commitment of senior leaders.

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Glimpses of History #11: Unified Egypt

History of Unified Ancient Egypt

In one of the most important occurrences in the history of Africa, the first steps toward food production were initiated in its northeast corner. The area, now occupied by Egypt and Sudan, was the ground for initial attempts to keep cattle from an African stock. It was also the area that hosted the beginnings of cultivating cereals and of herding sheep and goats introduced from Southwest Asia.

Once agriculture arrived from Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization evolved rapidly. It centered around the predictable regular flooding of the Nile River, which provided both irrigation and fertile silt. The Pharoah, treated as a living god, was thought to ensure both sunrise and river tides through various rites, recorded in hieroglyphic (‘priest-script’) texts. Two major kingdoms established: Lower Egypt around the Nile Delta, and Upper Egypt, bordering Sudan. Traditionally, the two were unified by the Pharaoh Menes around 3000 BCE. Menes founded Egypt’s First Dynasty (of 31 in total). Shortly afterwards, a new capital, Memphis, was built. Dynasties came and went recurrently, with major regional conflicts and civil wars defining the Old, Middle and New Kingdom periods.

The first step pyramid, built by the brilliant architect Imhotep about 2630 BCE, was a natural progression of the mastaba tombs—Khufu’s Great Pyramid, built a thousand years later, is the sole survivor of Herodotus’s Seven Wonders of the World.

Rituals and Rites of Ancient Egypt

The beginning of kings and chiefs was linked to the development of a belief in cosmic forces responsible for the generation (birth) and regeneration (resurrection) of life. Cows, already sacred in the African Sahara as indicated by elaborate cow burials, became life-giving deities, and kings became identified with bulls. The iconography of deities on decorated Nagada II pottery showed the cow goddess at the top of the palette associated with Narmer (5,000 BCE), the founder of a unified Egypt. Cows ultimately came to represent many of the earliest Egyptian goddesses, who were symbols of birth, nurturing, and protection. Local political centers in the Nile Valley were, moreover, identified with local cult standards and centers. Many of these centers developed into towns with large graveyards.

Pyramid building was a prominent characteristic of the Old Kingdom. The first pyramid was the Step Pyramid at Sakkara, built by King Djoser (c. 2667-2640 BCE) in the Third Dynasty, the first example of a pyramid and also of monumental architecture in stone. The Step Pyramid Complex developed out of the earlier royal burials at Abydos, where a squared mound covered the burial and a separate, large, rectangular enclosure provided space for royal rituals. By the Fourth Dynasty, the stepped pyramid had developed into a true pyramid, as seen best in the famous pyramids at Giza.

In the Fifth Dynasty, pyramid building persisted, although on a much reduced scale. Rather than a massive pyramid protecting the king’s body for his afterlife, each Fifth Dynasty king also built a sun temple complex, connecting his afterlife with the eternal cycle of the sun. By the time of the Sixth Dynasty, pyramid texts carved in the burial chambers of the royal pyramids guaranteed that the king awakened from death and joined the gods in heaven.

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How to Increase Employee Commitment and Engagement

How to Increase Employee Commitment and Engagement If employee allegiance no longer has a metaphysical basis in a culture, people are left with only two values—personal peace and personal affluence—and these values diminish loyalty with their self-absorbed focus. Employees who long only to be left alone to follow better possessions and better experiences have no room for loyal relationships.

To increase commitment, managers focus on employee ownership and retention, either by giving employees equity in the company in hopes that if they own it, they will give more commitment so that their equity will increase in value; or by giving project control in hopes that if the employees own the project, they will give the commitment that is needed for the project’s success. Employee ownership, however, is a deficient substitute for employee loyalty.

Employee Engagement Strategy Examples

Managers who try to encourage loyalty through employee retention soon realize that this too is inadequate to build loyalty. These programs tend to focus on employee self-fulfillment rather than earning and retaining loyalty to the values, purposes and people of the organization.

Our survey indicates that the top five drivers of employee commitment are:

  1. management’s recognition of the importance of personal and family life;
  2. opportunities for personal growth;
  3. satisfying customer needs;
  4. communications about benefits; and
  5. skills keeping pace with job requirements.

These drivers deepen employees’ commitments, but only on condition that some other prospective employer is not providing them more fully or with better pay. Gaining employee commitment by nourishing the need for self-fulfillment is another example of loyalty for personal gain rather than loyalty to the values, purpose and people of the organization.

The problem with trying to win loyalty through ownership and retention plans is that these are attempts to buy what must be warranted. Loyalty means to be steadfast in one’s allegiance to a person, cause, or company and to beliefs, practices, and relationships that benefit all involved. A culture that wins loyalty is built by exemplifying high values and right purposes, by assuming constituents to live these high values and right purposes, and by rewarding them when they do and challenging them when they do not.

Four Implications for Employee Loyalty

Managers and employees who take sincerely the need to build loyalty must see four consequences.

  1. Building loyalty to the values, purposes and people of an organization is swimming against the tide of current trends. It will entail time and energy.
  2. Managers need to either commit to building employee loyalty or quit criticizing about the lack of it.
  3. Employees will likely reap what they sow in terms of loyalty. If they do not learn the lessons of loyalty now, they will not know how to earn and build loyalty when they become managers.
  4. Managers need to vet potential employees as to their prior commitment to organizational values, purposes and people rather than just personal gain.

In terms of employee loyalty, managers can choose to either curse the darkness or light a candle.

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The Ego Cannot Proceed Without Restraints

The Ego Cannot Proceed Without Restraints

Frustrations May Indeed Be Acts of Genuine Love

Frustrations May Indeed Be Acts of Genuine Love The greatest of all arts is the art of love. We seek the well-being of those who are the objects of our affection. But how can we achieve this? Showering gifts on a child and allowing him to have his way at all times will not serve his well-being. It may even corrupt him and make him a mean and contemptible creature. On the other hand, thwarting him unduly may destroy his sense of security and cripple him emotionally for the rest of his life.

We need affection and the things it provides. However, affection is not a green light permitting the ego to proceed without restraints. It expresses itself in giving, but also in denying, in caressing but also in rebuking. The instinctive self-seeking of the child will grow into the irrational compulsions of the adult unless as a child he learns that his will was meant to have reason as its master. By reason, I mean that which teaches a man to walk through life with humility.

He who has never been frustrated will become an insufferable brat whatever his age. Occasional frustrations are good for the soul. We cannot live in a civilized society and give vent to all the impulses that exist in our natures. Some of them must be vetoed; some of them must be frustrated; and some must be vetoed and frustrated at particular moments. Thus parents who frustrate their children’s whims are not necessarily violating their love for them. In the right proportion, such frustrations may indeed be acts of genuine love.

What you will not find, all the same, is the one thing you are looking for your own happiness, peace of mind, and educated nature.

Politeness Should Be Reciprocally Valued

Politeness Should Be Reciprocally Valued We ourselves also have moments when our mental attitude to life is like this-moments when our profound humanity is awakened and manifests itself. A body weighed nicely before it is put into the fire, and then weighed again, will be found to be increased in weight very reasonably. Thus the old man, even against the vehemence of this regretful commotion of his life, and all the rest, will live happy: and be ought to value that happiness the more because he will owe it to his own discernment. So that any lady or gentleman of sense and liberalness, may, thus assisted, become self-governing physicians, and often save not only their own, but the life of a friend or of a fellow creature, when manifestly at the point of death—and when given over by even the best physicians. British author, editor, and social entrepreneur Dougald Hine once wrote,

A harnessing of desire such that to be a good economic citizen became to work hard today for a deferred reward and in that you lose the festive culture where a surplus is an excuse for an animal experience of a feast rather than a surplus being something that is rationally reinvested. … Victorian morality … is the playing out …. of the relationship between time and desire which is inaugurated by a economic culture which is orientated around deferred gratification. And then at a certain point of time in the developed countries to be a good economic citizen begins to shift from being a good producer to being a good consumer, so what you have is that you spend on your credit card today and worry about how you are going to pay for it tomorrow …. an abstract contortion between desire and time

Nobody learns anything if politeness is not reciprocally valued. Many arts have been tried to make saltwater fresh and potable; the welfare of which would be, that in long voyages, when a ship’s company wanted fresh water, they might make use of seawater as a very easy interchange, by freshening it according to art. Sometimes being modest about our ability to genuinely operate oeuvre every facet of our life is good; it means we can focus instead on reacting vigorously to life’s stochasticity. Therefore, humanity is awakened to serious rumination. The greatest object lesson in life is to know that even fools are right on sometimes. We tend to equate ourselves with others and to wonder if we have enough to proffer in a relationship. However, were the knowledge of religious belief merely wondering, though’ the conjecture must be allowed to be noble, yet less could be said of its importance. Much of this work is conducted without much cognizance of its particular failings, difficulties, and critiques.

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Glimpses of History #10: Babylon

City of Babylon is the capital of Babylonia

Notwithstanding its lack of native stone or wood, Mesopotamia gave rise to noteworthy empires from crowded cities such as Babylon, Ur, Jericho, Samara and later Nineveh. Many of these empires are remembered as tyrannical (though of course records such as the Bible are history written by the vanquished).

Babylon was an important city-state of ancient Mesopotamia. Its remains can be found just south of Baghdad in present-day Iraq. Founded as a relatively small town around the beginning of the third millennium BCE, Babylon has been at the center of the rise and fall of a number of important dynasties and empires, including the Amorite, Hittite, Kassite, and Assyrian.

The City of Babylon is the capital of Babylonia and one of the most famous cities of antiquity. The ruins of the ancient city lie about 60 miles south of Baghdad, near the Hilla Canal of the Euphrates.

Ishtar Gate, Eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon Founded by Sumu-abum in 1894 BCE, Babylon rose to imperial status under Hammurabi (1792–1750 BCE). Many features of later cities developed here: written law, schools, taxes, shops and traffic: wheels, initially used for pottery, were now so common on carts that roads were purpose-built. The Babylonian number system, based on divisions of 60, is still at the center of our systems of geometry and timekeeping. Babylon ruled Mesopotamia for over a century, and later (after conquest by the Hittites, and Assyrian rule) was growing under Nebuchadnezzar II (634-562 BCE), when it attacked Egypt and sacked Jerusalem, Tyre and Nineveh. The reassembled city and Hanging Gardens persisted for centuries.

The earliest mention of Babylon comes from the time of the Dynasty of Akkad (2360—2180 BCE). The city of Babylon was well known to Greek and Roman historians. The Greek historian Herodotus, who may have visited the city in the fifth century BCE (or based his account on the reports of observers), wrote that “it surpasses in splendor any city of the known world.” Classical authors also credited Babylon with one of the ancient wonders of the world: the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Babylonian Captivity is the detention of the Israelites in Babylon, lasting from their deportation by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 bc until their release by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. It is taken as a type of grieving exile.

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