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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau Poster

Art Nouveau is an artistic style characterized by free form, sinuous line, and organic motifs.

The Salon de l’Art Nouveau, opened in 1895 by art dealer Siegfried (aka Samuel) Bing (1838–1905) in Paris, was the first showcase for the “new” art style sweeping both Europe and the United States from 1890 onward. Before Art Nouveau, the late nineteenth century had been characterized by a balancing act between the strict order and historicism of the Neoclassicists and the emotional and visual chaos of the Romantics.

Looking to the natural world but moving beyond it for free-flowing, organic form allowed the practitioners of the “new art” to create graceful works that built on traditional styles but also transformed them. Some critics trace the visual style back to Celtic manuscript illumination with its interlacing knot patterns, others to the Rococo love of the curvilinear and extreme elaboration. Precursors include the works of English Aesthetic movement illustrator Aubrey Beardsley (1862–98), Arts and Crafts designer William Morris (1834–96), and ukiyo-e Japanese printmakers, such as Katsushika Hokusai (c. 1760–1849).

In his book Pioneers of Modem Design (1936), Nikolaus Pevsner (1902–83) wrote, “… the curve undulating, flowing, and interplaying with others … .” He suggests that Art Nouveau was the transitional style to the modern era. It certainly incorporated many of the philosophical and societal trends of the period from 1890 to 1910. Whether it was a reflection of artists wanting to break free of societal norms or a quest for aesthetic purity removed from moral judgments, the explorations of Art Nouveau touched everything from graphic design to furniture and began the modern era, foreshadowing later modern trends such as abstraction and Surrealism.

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Posted in Music, Arts, and Culture

Vincent van Gogh’s First Sunday Sermon

Vincent van Gogh: Christian Missionary, Evangelist, and Visionary Painter

Vincent van Gogh Christian Missionary, Evangelist, and Visionary Painter It is difficult to comprehend the disastrous undertones of Vincent van Gogh’s lifespan and to attach the power and beauty of his work with his lethal decline into insanity and suicide. The eldest son of devout Christian parents, Van Gogh sensed a sense of familial responsibility to what he supposed were their hopes for his life.

First-time readers of Van Gogh’s letters are frequently registered by the fact that their originator possessed a keen spiritual kindliness from his earliest days— undeniably, that his initial occupational predispositions were concerning the life of missionary and evangelist.

Painting did not become his main enthusiasm until, at age 27, his discharge from the missionary society, under whose patronages he had labored, obligated him to seek another means of expression for his spiritual zeal.

In addition to his official duties at the school, Van Gogh ostensibly felt a strong responsibility to comprise himself with the local church congregations. Armed with the self-confidence that regularly comes with practice, he started to teach and to give a sermon, and the letters to his brother Theo are abounding with biblical citation and insinuation. In a heart rendering letter to Theo, Vincent wrote,

It certainly is a strange phenomenon that all artists, poets, musicians, painters, are unfortunate in material things- the happy ones as well-what you said lately about Guy de Maupassant is fresh proof of it. That brings up again the eternal question: Is the whole life visible to us, or isn’t it rather that this side of death we see only one hemisphere? Painters-to take them alone-dead and buried speak to the next generation or to several succeeding generations through their work. Is that all, or is there more to come? Perhaps death is not the hardest thing in a painter’s life. For my own part, I declare I know nothing whatever about it, but looking at the stars always makes me dream, as simply as I dream over the black dots representing towns and villages on a map. Why, I ask myself, shouldn’t the shining dots of the sky be as accessible as the black dots on the map of France? Just as we take the train to get to Tarascon or Rouen, we take death to reach a star. One thing undoubtedly true in this reasoning is that we cannot get to a star while we are alive, any more than we can take the train when we are dead. So to me it seems possible that cholera, gravel, tuberculosis and cancer are the celestial means of locomotion, just as steamboats, buses and railways are the terrestrial means. To die quietly of old age would be to go there on foot.

Vincent’s conception of an “almost smiling” death reflected his fervent faith in rebirth and immortality—an idea that found early articulation in his sermon: “there is not death and no sorrow that is not mixed with hope—no despair—there is only a constantly being born again.” Vincent sought an identification with his father, and chose the profession of his father, a profession in which he could bring God close to mankind. He just wanted to be active in the profession of his father. He went to live with his uncle in Amsterdam, with the purpose of learning Latin and Greek and to prepare for the State examination. In the intervening time, he became anti-social due to all of his piousness. He composed sermons, went to church six or seven times on Sundays, and even visited the synagogue.

Insofar as it was probable to become a missionary in a very short time at the Borinage in Brussels, he decided to go there. But now, at a time when he had tumbled deeper than ever before into the well of self-absorption, he found in it a new treasure: he began to draw again, and now with his whole soul.

  • “You know that I go to the Methodist Chapel … every Monday night. Last night I spoke a few words on the subject ‘Nothing pleaseth me but in Jesus Christ, and in Him everything pleaseth me.'”
  • “Last Monday I was again at Richmond, and my subject was “He has sent me to preach the Gospel to the poorest but whoever wants to preach the Gospel must carry it in his own heart first. Oh! may I find it, for it is only the word spoken in earnestness and from the fullness of the heart that can bear fruit.”
  • “It is a delightful thought that in the future wherever I go, I shall preach the Gospel; to do that well, one must have the Gospel in one’s heart. May the Lord give it to me.”
  • “How difficult life must be if not strengthened and comforted by faith.”
  • “Theo, woe is me if I do not preach the Gospel- if I did not aim at that and possess faith and hope in Christ, it would be bad for me indeed; but now I have some courage.”

Vincent van Gogh’s First Sunday Sermon: 29-Oct-1876: “I Am a Stranger on the Earth”

Vincent Van Gogh's First Sunday Sermon Psalm 119:19: I am a stranger on the earth, hide not Thy commandments from me. It is an old belief and it is a good belief, that our life is a pilgrim’s progress—that we are strangers on the earth, but that though this be so, yet we are not alone for our Father is with us. We are pilgrims, our life is a long walk or journey from earth to Heaven.

The beginning of this life is this: there is only one who remembereth no more her sorrow and her anguish for joy that a man is horn into the world. She is our Mother. The end of our pilgrimage is the entering in Our Father’s house, where are many mansions, where He has gone before us to prepare a place for us. The end of this life is what we call death—it is an hour in which words are spoken, things are seen and felt, that are kept in the secret chambers of the hearts of those who stand by, —it is so that all of us have such things in our hearts or forebodings of such things. There is sorrow in the hour when a man is born into the world, but also joy, deep and unspeakable, thankfulness so great that it reaches the highest heavens. Yes the Angels of God, they smile, they hope and they rejoice when a man is born in the world. There is sorrow in the hour of death, but there is also joy unspeakable when it is the hour of death of one who has fought a good fight. There is one who has said: I am the resurrection and the life, if any man believe in Me though he were dead, yet shall he live. There was an apostle who heard a voice from heaven saying: Blessed are they that die in the Lord, for they rest from their labour and their works follow them. There is joy when a man is born in the world, but there is greater joy when a spirit has passed through great tribulation, when an angel is born in Heaven. Sorrow is better than joy—and even in mirth the heart is sad—and it is better to go to the house of mourning than to the house of feasts, for by the sadness of the countenance the heart is made better. Our nature is sorrowful, but for those who have learnt and are learning to look at Jesus Christ there is always reason to rejoice. It is a good word that of St. Paul: as being sorrowful yet always rejoicing. For those who believe in Jesus Christ, there is no death or sorrow that is not mixed with hope—no despair—there is only a constantly being born again, a constantly going from darkness into light. They do not mourn as those who have no hope—Christian Faith makes life to evergreen life.

We are pilgrims on the earth and strangers—we come from afar and we are going far. -The journey of our life goes from the loving breast of our Mother on earth to the arms of our Father in heaven. Everything on earth changes—we have no abiding city here—it is the experience of everybody. That it is God’s will that we should part with what is dearest on earth—we ourselves change in many respects, we are not what we once were, we shall not remain what we are now. From infancy we grow up to boys and girls—young men and women—and if God spares us and helps us, to husbands and wives, Fathers and Mothers in our turn, and then, slowly but surely the face that once had the early dew of morning, gets its wrinkles, the eyes that once beamed with youth and gladness speak of a sincere deep and earnest sadness, though they may keep the fire of Faith, Hope and Charity—though they may beam with God’s spirit. The hair turns grey or we lose it-ah-indeed we only pass through the earth, we only pass through life, we are strangers and pilgrims on the earth. The world passes and all its glory. Let our later days be nearer to Thee, and therefore better than these.

Yet we may not live on casually hour by hour—no we have a strife to strive and a fight to fight. What is it we must do: we must love God with all our strength, with all our might, with all our soul, we must love our neighbours as ourselves. These two commandments we must keep, and if we follow after these, if we are devoted to this, we are not alone, for our Father in Heaven is with us, helps us and guides us, gives us strength day by day, hour by hour, and so we can do all things through Christ who gives us might. We are strangers on the earth, hide not Thy commandments from us. Open Thou our eyes that we may behold wondrous things out of Thy law. Teach us to do Thy will and influence our hearts that the love of Christ may constrain us and that we may be brought to do what we must do to be saved.

On the road from earth to Heaven
Do Thou guide us with Thine eye;
We are weak but Thou art mighty,
Hold us with Thy powerful hand.

Our life, we might compare it with a journey, we go from the place where we were born to a far-off haven. Our earlier life might be compared to sailing on a river, but very soon the waves become higher, the wind more violent, we are at sea almost before we are aware of it—and the prayer from the heart ariseth to God: Protect me 0 God, for my bark is so small and Thy sea is so great. The heart of man is very much like the sea, it has its storms, its tides and its depths; it has its pearls too. The heart that seeks for God and for a Godly life has more storms than any other. Let us see how a Psalmist describes a storm at sea. He must have felt the storm in his heart to describe it so. We read in the io7th Psalm: They that go down to the sea in ships that do business in great waters, these see the works of the Lord and His wonders in the deep. For He commandeth and raiseth up a stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof. They mount up to Heaven, they go down again to the depth, their soul melteth in them because of their trouble. Then they cry unto the Lord in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses.

He bringeth them into their desired haven.

Do we not feel this sometimes on the sea of our lives?

Does not every one of you feel with me the storms of life or their forebodings or their recollections?

And now let us read a description of another storm at sea in the New Testament, as we find it in the VIth chapter of the Gospel according to St. John in the i7th to the 21st verse. “And the disciples entered into a ship and went over the sea towards Capernaum. And the sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew. So when they had rowed about five-and-twenty or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea and drawing nigh unto the ship and they were afraid. Then they willingly received Him into the ship and immediately the ship was at the land whither they went.” You who have experienced the great storms of life, you over whom all the waves and all the billows of the Lord have gone—have you not heard, when your heart failed for fear, the beloved well-known voice with something in its tone that reminded you of the voice that charmed your childhood—the voice of Him whose name is Saviour and Prince of Peace, saying as it were to you personally, mind to you personally: “It is I, be not afraid.” Fear not. Let not your heart be troubled. And we whose lives have been calm up till now, calm in comparison of what others have felt—let us not fear the storms of life, amidst the high waves of the sea and under the grey clouds of the sky we shall see Him approaching, for whom we have so often longed and watched, Him we need so—and we shall hear His voice: It is I, be not afraid. And if after an hour or season of anguish or distress or great difficulty or pain or sorrow we hear Him ask us: “Dost thou love me?” Then let us say: Lord Thou knowest all things, Thou knowest that I love Thee. And let us keep that heart full of the love of Christ and may from thence issue a life which the love of Christ constraineth, Lord Thou knowest all things, Thou knowest that I love Thee; when we look back on our past we feel sometimes as if we did love Thee, for whatsoever we have loved, we loved in Thy name.

Have we not often felt as a widow and an orphan—in joy and prosperity as well and even more than under grief—because of the thought of Thee.

Truly our soul waiteth for Thee more than they that watch for the morning, our eyes are up unto Thee, 0 Thou who dwellest in Heaven. In our days too there can be such a thing as seeking the Lord.

What is it we ask of God—is it a great thing? Yes, it is a great thing, peace for the ground of our heart, rest for our soul—give us that one thing and then we want not much more, then we can do without many things, then can we suffer great things for Thy name’s sake. We want to know that we are Thine and that Thou art ours, we want to be Thine—to be Christians—we want a Father, a Father’s love and a Father’s approval. May the experience of life make our eye single and fix it on Thee. May we grow better as we go on in life. We have spoken of the storms on the journey of life, but now let us speak of the calms and joys of Christian life. And yet, my dear friends, let us rather cling to the seasons of difficulty and work and sorrow, for the calms are often treacherous. The heart has its storms, has its seasons of drooping but also its calms and even its times of exaltation. There is a time of sighing and of praying, but there is also a time of answer to prayer. Weeping may endure for a night but joy cometh in the morning.

The heart that is fainting
May grow full to overflowing
And they that behold it
Shall wonder and know not
That God at its fountains
Far off has been raining.

My peace I leave with you—we saw how there is peace even in the storm. Thanks be to God, who has given us to be born and to live in a Christian country. Has any one of us forgotten the golden hours of our early days at home, and since we left that home—for many of us have had to leave that home and to earn their living and to make their way in the world. Has He not brought us thus far, have we lacked anything, Lord we believe help Thou our unbelief. I still feel the rapture, the thrill of joy I felt when for the first time I cast a deep look in the lives of my Parents, when I felt by instinct how much they were Christians. And I still feel that feeling of eternal youth and enthusiasm wherewith I went to God, saying: “I will be a Christian too.” Are we what we dreamt we should be? No, but still the sorrows of life, the multitude of things of daily life and of daily duties, so much more numerous than we expected, the tossing to and fro in the world, they have covered it over, but it is not dead, it sleepeth. The old eternal faith and love of Christ, it may sleep in us but it is not dead and God can revive it in us. But though to be born again to eternal life, to the life of Faith, Hope and Charity, —and to an evergreen life—to the life of a Christian and a Christian workman, be a gift of God, a work of God—and of God alone, yet let us put the hand to the plough on the field of our heart, let us cast out our net once more—let us try once more. God knows the intention of the spirit. God knows us better than we know ourselves, for He made us and not we ourselves. He knows of what things we have need. He knows what is good for us. May He give us His blessing on the seed of His word, that He has sown in our hearts. God helping us, we shall get through life. With every temptation he will give a way to escape.

Father we pray Thee not that Thou shouldest take us out of the world, but we pray Thee to keep us from evil. Give us neither poverty nor riches, feed us with bread convenient for us. And let Thy songs be our delight in the houses of our pilgrimage. God of our Fathers be our God: may their people be our people, their faith our faith. We are strangers on the earth, hide not Thy commandments from us, but may the love of Christ constrain us. Entreat us not to leave Thee or refrain from following after Thee. Thy people shall be our people. Thou shalt be our God.

Our life is a pilgrim’s progress. I once saw a very beautiful picture: it was a landscape at evening. In the distance on the right-hand side a row of hills appeared blue in the evening mist. Above those hills the splendour of the sunset, the grey clouds with their linings of silver and gold and purple. The landscape is a plain or heath covered with grass and its yellow leaves, for it was in autumn. Through the landscape a road leads to a high mountain far, far away, on the top of that mountain is a city wherein the setting sun casts a glory. On the road walks a pilgrim, staff in hand. He has been walking for a good long while already and he is very tired. And now he meets a woman, or figure in black, that makes one think of St. Paul’s word: As being sorrowful yet always rejoicing. That Angel of God has been placed there to encourage the pilgrims and to answer their questions and the pilgrim asks her: Does the road go uphill then all the way?”

And the answer is: “Yes to the very end.”

And he asks again: “And will the journey take all day long?”

And the answer is: “From morn till night my friend.”

And the pilgrim goes on sorrowful yet always rejoicing—sorrowful because it is so far off and the road so long. Hopeful as he looks up to the eternal city far away, resplendent in the evening glow and he thinks of two old sayings that he heard long ago—the one is:

“Much strife must be striven
Much suffering must be suffered
Much prayer must be prayed
And then the end will be peace.”

And the other is

“The water comes up to the lips
But higher comes it not.”

And he says: I shall be more and more tired but also nearer and nearer to Thee. Has not man a strife on earth? But there is a consolation from God in this life. An Angel of God comforting man—that is the Angel of Charity. Let us not forget her. And when each of us goes back to the daily things and daily duties let us not forget that things are not what they seem, that God by the things of daily life teacheth us higher things, that our life is a pilgrim’s progress, and that we are strangers on the earth, but that we have a God and father who preserveth strangers, —and that we are all brethren.

Amen.

And now the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God the Father and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us forever more.

Amen.

Reading: Psalm XCI.

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Posted in Faith and Religion Leaders and Innovators Philosophy and Wisdom

Sparkling Romance with Norway’s Historic Hotels & Restaurants

De Historiske is a unique membership organization consisting of several of Norway’s most delightful hotels and restaurants.

De Historiske’s new range of short breaks is a huge success and Norway is more popular as a holiday destination than ever before. Their member-hotels offer unique adventures in Norway. Patrons staying at a number of their hotels, dining in their fabulous restaurants and taking wonderful boat trips can all be part of an amazing package. They offer different packages—each with unique theme—but all have one thing in common—patrons will have an experience of a lifetime.

Destination Weddings in Norway

You and Your Loved One Can Really Spoil Yourselves

Two of the most romantic locations for memorable breaks. Enjoy delicious meals in idyllic, peaceful surroundings. This short break starts at Hotell Refsnes Gods, only a stone’s throw from the Oslofjord. The hotel has an excellent reputation for delicious dining and well-stocked wine cellars, in addition to the inspirational art adorning its walls. The good life continues in the magnificent natural surroundings of Engo Gard Hotel & Restaurant, with its English conservatory-style heated swimming pool and Jacuzzi for relaxation and pampering.

Take a break from the daily toil and feel the benefits!

Sparkling Romance with Norway's Historic Hotels & Restaurants

With Nature at the Doorstep, Work Becomes the Furthest Thing

Whether you want time to socialize with your friends or enjoy a romantic weekend, you’ll find the perfect escape at the hotels’ castles, manors, inns and guesthouses. Do you want to enjoy activities while relaxing, or just enjoy the peace? Regardless of the hotel, you can be sure to end up in scenic surroundings, with top restaurants where traditional food meets modern cuisine.

Weddings, Celebrations, Honeymoons, and Festive Occasions in Norway

Weddings, Celebrations & Festive Occasions That Deserve Special Surroundings

If you are looking to hold a birthday party in unique surroundings, spend a romantic honeymoon or celebrate an important occasion with a special culinary experience, De Historiske are your natural choice. The genuine atmosphere is the reason why many people choose to celebrate special occasions at De Historiske. De Historiske’s surroundings are perfect for creating the relaxed atmosphere that is worthy of an important day—whether a birthday or a wedding day. Celebrations can vary from evening parties to grand events lasting from morning to night. They can also recommend family get-togethers, where the generations meet, in many of Norway’s historic picturesque surroundings.

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Posted in Music, Arts, and Culture Travels and Journeys

Use Facilitative Leadership to Transform Your Organization

Facilitative Leadership Style

'The Facilitative Leadership That Makes the Difference' by Priscilla H. Wilson (ISBN 097297640X) Facilitative leadership is not about leading by committee or getting everyone together and asking, “What do you and you think?” Committee can decide not everything. The front lines are not the place to take a straw poll. Even so, there are times when a leader can, and should, get people together to talk about how to improve operations and ask for input. That is facilitative leadership.

For this process to work, leaders must create a culture where people not only feel comfortable contributing ideas and suggestions, but where leaders act on those inputs.

Facilitative Leadership Theory

Acting on input does not mean doing everything the group tells you to do. It means making it clear to the group that their input is valued by defining how that input will be used. Many times a leader gives the impression that if the team members give honest input, they will be punished. This is why the leader must clarify how the input will be used before asking for input.

For instance, let the group know if you are:

  • Just asking for ideas and you, the leader, will make the final decision,
  • Asking for ideas and you, the leader, will discuss options with the group before making the final decision,
  • Requesting input so the final decision will be made together as a team,
  • Requiring input, and the team will make the final decision after reviewing it with you, and,
  • Giving input to the team and the team will tell you what the final decision is.

Facilitative Leadership Style

Facilitative Leadership Style

These are examples of how to explain your intentions when involving direct reports in decision-making. Clarity builds respect, trust, and rapport.

'The Practice of Facilitative Leadership' by Ken Todd Williams (ISBN 1523693908) The role of the leader is changing. Once, the leader stood in the middle of everything and directed the team with one-way communication. The leader would say, “Jump,” and followers would only ask, “How high?” As leaders progress, they allow for two- way communication, but they are still in the middle directing the activities. Then, as leaders continue to progress, they step out of the middle and become a part of the team. The leaders are still responsible, but they do not push their people—they tend to pull, to get people to follow them—not to push and micro-manage them.

As leaders progress even more, they can step away from the day-to-day management. This affords even more communication among the members of the team. Again, you cannot do this until you help the team members interact with each other on a level playing field. You can then be free to work on the strategic elements of your job.

These skills are becoming more critical because the leader’s span at control is expanding!

Now, when you step away, you do not disengage! You cannot expect what you do not inspect. So you must be accessible, continue to coach, and have the courage to hold people accountable and not fold under pressure. Suppose, for example, that you have been coaching a direct report on an important project. The project does not reach its target. Your boss calls you in and asks, “What happened?” You might explain how you have been coaching a member of your team who let you down; but you need the courage to also say, “I am responsible, and I will make sure that it doesn’t happen again.” You are ultimately responsible for your group’s performance!

Now, you will want to talk with that direct report about what happened. Clearly, you need to revisit the miscues. It is the employee’s responsibility to achieve the goals, but you need to ensure your people are on-track.

Characteristics of Facilitative Leaders

Characteristics of Facilitative Leaders

Facilitative leaders listen to multiple points of view, including those they do not agree with. This enables them to make better decisions. Facilitative leaders capture the key kernels of information, build bridges between people, and create an atmosphere where people share information.

When you master these skills, you become a facilitative leader. The need for greater collaboration comes at a time when the diversity of perspectives, talents, and cultures present in the workplace is increasing. Achieving better results by tapping into this mix is a goal that can be accomplished through effective application of facilitative leadership fundamentals.

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Posted in Management and Leadership

Best Books on Creativity

Inspire Greater Creativity

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Posted in Mental Models and Psychology

The Wonderful Benefits Intergenerational Coaching

The Wonderful Benefits Intergenerational Coaching

All generations have similar values. Many deliberate that there are such differences between generations but in reality, all feel that family is the value chosen most commonly by people of all generations. Others embrace truthfulness, love, aptitude, happiness, self-respect, knowledge, etc. So why do people at work think the ethics between generations are so different?

'Unlocking Generational Codes' by Anna Liotta (ISBN 1935586424) The public declaration of these hymns reveals how applause, pain, and politics interface within a historical setting of Roman oppression. Because even though the values are the same, the behaviors that go along with those values may be different. In addition to the standing of not snubbing the supposed stereotypes of employees, we should also not overlook undercurrents that occur in work groups. The diverse knowledge base that junior employees can present is a benefit that can be taken advantage of.

  • Give More Feedback: Animators at Disney generously pronounce how painful it can be to have directors plussing their ideas until the tiniest details, say a sliver of hair, seems just precise. We are probably unaware that people would like to know how to improve, and they merit to know it. It is their right. Besides the rewards of intergenerational learning for individuals, benefits of this learning process can also be found for corporations. Intergenerational learning leads to a higher level of social capital. This increased level of social capital has in turn the potential to enhance knowledge flows between workers in an organizational context. The negative feedback is often buried and not very specific.
  • Boost Flexibility: Literature provides a choice of concepts that are directly related to those of familiarity demand and supply. Employees working in the service sector, salaried employees, employees in executive positions, and employees with higher wages have better access to conventional flextime than other groups. The Cleveland Clinic hiring as many as two millennial doctors to replenish each retiree, as young MOs demand more work life balance. Business is concerned with productivity and profits. People are an progressively valuable resource, which management is becoming more affected to manage effectively. Attaining operative knowledge management integration is an eminent challenge facing both general management and project managers.
  • Lavish Praise for Intergenerational Workplace Lavish Praise: After considering the observations in light of extant research, we present a multi-stage process model that describes the central dynamics at work in the business experience. Over the following decade, the centers presented new communication and educational tools and maintained a wide variety of cultural events including exhibitions, forums, exchanges, and publications. The support provided to individuals and organizations proved instrumental and contributed to an added visibility of the region. The results of the analysis are deduced in the business context in order to show how communication research may impact to the analysis of intergenerational learning in a specific business. The company’s polished performances balance cheery explorations of humanity with serious concerns ranging from death, aging, and solitude to immigration, beauty, and fairy tales.
  • Adorn the Office: Apple plans to spend $1 billion to revamp a chief corporate campus with a focus on new technology and shared spaces. Foster abilities that cannot be automated away: timeless talents like critical thinking, playing nice and effective writing. Moreover, do not be afraid to skip around to understand relevant skills. This assertion also resonates with the experience of the Watsons of I.B.M. fame. In his 1990 autobiography, Tom Watson Jr. recollects how his early years were overwhelmed by a sense of inadequacy vis-à-vis his father’s expectations that he take over IBM. Obfuscating the mix further were what amounted to ‘staged’ career achievements, such as when young Tom was assigned a coveted sales territory in downtown Manhattan that allowed him to meet his sales quota in just one day.

'When Generations Collide' by Lynne Lancaster, David Stillman (ISBN 0066621070) While generational issues do need to be discussed and resolved, I am troubled about making too big an issue out of them. We do not want to draw a line between two generations of managers and involuntarily disaffect them from each other. Instead, we need to learn to work together as we seek to help librarianship advance with the times to serve the needs of the public. Each manager, new or experienced, old or young, brings respected experiences, perceptions, skills, and ideas to the profession. We need to find a way to concede those assets and put them to trustworthy use.

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Posted in Management and Leadership

New Challenges in Leadership

Leadership today is more challenging than ever. Leaders face globalization; increased competition for customers, markets, and talent; rapid change; speed and complexity; change in types of workers and related contracts; loss of purpose among workers; increased process management and decreased mobility-among other things.

Leaders today must create a pathway along a liminal landscape that is constantly shifting between chaos and order. In this state, people live outside their comfort zones; they experience a loss of meaning and direction. They are faced with doing things they have little experience with or have ne.ver done before. They realize that the future is not just unknown; it is unknowable.

A special type of leader is needed for this unknowable condition-one who can help provide direction, meaning, and contain anxiety for others, on one hand, and facilitate openness, ongoing learning, and reflection on the other. These leaders must not only embrace both order and chaos but also provide a way for people to reflect transformaupon what they are doing and enable needthem to make more useful sense of it. Leaders also need to be both effective mentors for others and effective learn-ers themselves.

Leaders can successfully navigate this territory by embracing both sides of the order I chaos paradox-transformation and emergence.

  • Transformational leaders-those who bring order to guiding changemust not only convey a compelling vision and be sensitive and responsive to the needs of their constituents but also behave as role models who walk the talk. These leaders typically are officially designated and have the formal position, authority, and backing. They drive change, establish the vision, and mobilize the troops.
  • Emergent leaders, on the other hand, may not be officially sanctioned and are more on the chaos side. They may, in fact, be part of what Ralph Stacy terms the shadow organization interactions among members of a legitimate system that fall outside that legitimate system. As people operate in the shadow system, leadership roles emerge. The roles then shift based on contributions people make and how they make that contribution known.

Another way leadership emerges is when an individual articulates and initiates potentially creative thought, discoveries, and behavior either on their own behalf or that of others. Often these leaders emerge from the ranks. Conversely, they may be officially sanctioned as leaders but have relationships and ways of working that go beyond what appears on charts, in position descriptions, or in job objectives.

They make the vision come alive by creating space for it to unfold through their own actions; they build commitment and confidence, create opportnities, and help others lead them selves. These leaders translate the guiding visions, values and beliefs into action by using them to shape their own behavior.

The attributes of both transformational and emergent leaders are needed. These attributes, more likely to be manifest in a team of individuals, are essential for navigating the liminal space between chaos and order. The manner in which they are combined and applied will depend on the leaders and their organizations.

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Posted in Management and Leadership

Creativity: Difference between Innovation and Invention

Creativity: Difference between Innovation and Invention

Creativity involves the creation of a goal-directed novelty. Creativity results in the purposeful production of new things, either ideas or physical objects; the creative process or creative thinking is the psychological means whereby such novelty is brought about. Assuming that the individual’s purpose and meaning is critical in creative production necessitates that one cannot be called “creative” if one creates something new by accident. The consequent utilization of that accidental novelty might comprise processes that we could label as creative. The initial “discovery” did not, according to the delineation assumed here, come about through the creative process. It is normally not useful to contain value in this definition. Defining creativity as the production of novel products that are of value (no matter how one defines value) causes in complexities that represent the definition unusable. The invention process covers all efforts aimed at creating new ideas and getting them to work. Most important, the value of some product can change over time, which means that, if we take account of value in our definition of creative, the products or persons that one generation classifies as creative might not be so classified by the next. That prospect means that our database would be constantly shifting as we tried to mature our interpretation of creativity and associated concepts—an unacceptable set of circumstances.

Innovation involves a product that meets some benchmarks beyond those of intention and novelty; an innovation is a new product that serves some objective. It is here that questions of value become important. Building on the definition of creativity just given, an innovation is a new product that was intentionally produced to achieve some purpose and that succeeds, to a scale that is adequate, in doing so. Design is the process whereby innovation is brought about. So the design process encompasses creativity (the generation of novelty) as well as something more (the correction of that novelty so that it serves some specific purpose).

Innovation, design, and invention are directly related concepts; an invention is also a novel product that has been intentionally developed to achieve some purpose (that is, an invention is also an innovation as defined above). As opposed to innovation the term invention was regarded in the early 19th century as a positive attribute of an endeavor or product. Law protected inventions and patents were issues on the name of the inventor.

But an invention is the first innovation within some class of objects. In other words, a new member of an already existing category of objects is an innovation, but the first of the objects within that category is an invention. The invention process covers all efforts aimed at creating new ideas and getting them to work. The cognitive, conative, and affective processes of the mind are the bases for our perceptions and for our sorting, synthesizing, categorizing, ignoring, discarding and recombining all our sensory input into new configurations.

So, for example, it seems sensible to say the following of the Wright brothers:

  • they invented the airplane
  • they designed the first airplane, and
  • they designed an airplane.

Wright Brothers First Flight: Difference between Innovation and Invention

The individuals who successfully followed the Wrights only succeeded in designing airplanes. Those individuals may have invented things in their work-components of their successful airplanes but they did not invent the airplane. The airplane—or any artifact—can only be invented once.

Thus, the processes of invention and innovation might be the same, excepting the fact that the former results in production of the first of some class of objects (i.e., the first airplane) while the latter results in additional members of the previously populated category (i.e., other airplanes). It is an empirical question as to whether the process of invention is the same as the process of innovation. Experience provides the qualities of the prototypes we employ for interpreting the present. That is, is the same process (or processes) involved in producing the first member and subsequent members of some class of objects?

Invention is not a random process but is the result of research, study or repeated attempts. Invention must be distinguished from discovery. The latter involves finding or highlighting conditions or facts still unknown. The model of the invention system and the downstream commercialization system make it possible to provide some clear answers to important questions. An invention has to be unique worldwide where as an innovation has to be unique locally, in a certain region or area.

Invention represents a worldwide novelty while innovation is a local novelty. Innovation is an improvement or a refinement while invention is a completely new entity. Society is interested in both innovation and invention as innovation is an economically viable invention that can be exploited in order to generate benefit or to obtain profit.

Innovation is a generic term, whose meaning includes both having a new idea and putting it into action. The definition of innovation used here is appropriate when discussing research in science and engineering. It includes both process and product innovations, in both the goods and services sectors. Finer shadings of these innovations into incremental vs. revolutionary, disruptive vs. sustaining is not pursued in the present discussion.

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Posted in Mental Models and Psychology

How to Cross-Fertilize Ideas?

How to Cross-Fertilize Ideas?

Managers can kindle creativity by helping employees to cross-fertilize in their thinking, to think across subjects and disciplines. The traditional office environment often has separate classrooms and classmates for different subjects and seems to influence employees into thinking that learning occurs in discrete boxes—the math box, the social studies box, and the science box. Creative ideas and insights often result, however, from integrating material across subject areas, not from memorizing and reciting material.

Teaching employees to cross-fertilize draws on their skills, interests, and abilities, regardless of the subject. If employees are having trouble understanding math, managers might ask them to draft test questions related to their special interests. For instance, they might ask the baseball fan to devise geometry problems based on a game. The context may spur creative ideas because the student finds the topic (baseball) enjoyable and it may counteract some of the anxiety caused by geometry. Cross-fertilization motivates employees who aren’t interested in subjects taught in the abstract.

One way managers can promote cross-fertilization in the office is to ask employees to identify their best and worst professional areas. Employees can then be asked to come up with project ideas in their weak area based on ideas borrowed from one of their strongest areas. For example, managers can describe to employees that they can apply their interest in science to social studies by analyzing the scientific aspects of trends in national politics.

Allow time for Creative Thinking

Managers also need to allow employees the time to think creatively. Often, creativity requires time for incubation. Many societies today are societies in a hurry. People eat fast food, rush from one place to another, and value quickness. One way to say someone is smart is to say that the person is quick, a clear indication of an emphasis on time. This is also indicated by the format of many of the standardized tests used – lots of multiple-choice problems squeezed into a brief time slot.

Most creative insights do not happen in a rush. People need time to understand a problem and to toss it around. If employees are asked to think creatively, they need time to do it well. If managers stuff questions into their tests or give their employees more homework than they can complete, they are not allowing them time to think creatively.

Instruct and Assess for Creativity

Managers also should instruct and assess for creativity. If managers give only multiple-choice tests, employees quickly learn the type of thinking that managers value, no matter what they say. If managers want to encourage creativity, they need to include at least some opportunities for creative thought in assignments and tests.

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Posted in Mental Models and Psychology

Ryanair’s Michael O’Leary at the Paris Air Show 2013

Ryanair orders 175 New Boeing Aircraft

Michael O’Leary, the chief executive of Irish low-cost carrier Ryanair, participated in his first air show at the Paris Air Show 2013 to sign a deal with Boeing for 175 new 737-800 aircraft.

These aircraft are to be delivered over the five years from 2014 to 2018 to enable Europe’s largest airline to increase in size for twenty five percent over the five years and bring more low cost fares for Europe’s consumers. O’Leary confirmed that Boeing has been delivering great aircraft for many years, and they’ve never missed a delivery date. He also said that he chose the Boeing 737-800 over the competing Airbus model, the A320, because the operating economics of the 189-seat B737-800 are superior to that of the 180 seats on the A320. The nine extra seats make a big difference. In addition, the B737-800 is a great aircraft with superior technically reliability is among the best in the. Airbus, although makes good aircrafts, doen’st have enough seats on the A320 for Ryanair. If Ryanair would fly transatlantic, O’Leary hopes that there would be a very competitive bidding process between Airbus and Boeing and he will take the aircraft that offers the lowest operating cost per seat to enable Ryanair to offer $10 fares across the Atlantic.

Ryanair's Michael O'Leary at the Paris Air Show 2013

Answering a question on whether he’ll be at another air show to sign up for more aircraft, O’Leary responded, “I bloody hope not. I’d rather be signing in Seattle or New York or somewhere exciting rather than a wet and windy place like the Paris Air Show. … We’ve been in dialog with Boeing for the last four years, the major change has been a change in senior management in the last twelve months, and they’ve put more sales guys in charge. And there’s a real commitment within Boeing to do business and to recognize the need to compete aggressively with Airbus. “

I haven’t alienated myself from Airbus … they make great aircraft … The NEO has been a very successful product … it’s been too successful. You look at the EasyJet order yesterday and they can only get three aircraft in 2017 to be fair. The key thing about the Boeing order is that we get the three first deliveries in 2014 and then big chunky numbers in 2015, 2016, and 2017.

Ryanair's Michael O'Leary with Boeing's Ray Conner after announcing $15 billion purchase of 175 737-8 jets.

So it’s easier for us at this point to do another deal with Boeing because they have the aircraft and the willingness to continue to work with us. I think it’s harder for Airbus to do a deal with us because frankly they don’t need our business because they signed up huge numbers of the aircraft with Lion Air, Air Asia, the NEO with Pegasus, and more yesterday with EasyJet. Frankly, I’d never rule out to deal with the Airbus, if Airbus could deliver us the numbers have aircraft we need and at the right pricing, we’d do a deal.

I don’t see any prospect John Leahy leaving Airbus … he has done a terrific job over the last twenty years and he’s been one of the outstanding sales guys in the aircraft market and I hope there’s not much prospect of me leaving Ryanair for the next couple of years because I have four kids under the age of seven and I sure as hell don’t spend any more time at home. One of the opportunities that will arise if we had been allowed to acquire Air Lingus, we’ve had discussions with John Leahy, we would have placed an Airbus order very quickly if we owned Air Lingus.

Air Lingus would have continued to be an Airbus operator. You know things change and opportunities. I think it would be disingenuous to do anything other than to applaud the success of Airbus’s NEO product. It certainly has put pressure on Boeing to develop and bring forward the MAX product and that kind of competition can only be good for airlines and passengers.

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Posted in Airlines and Airliners Business and Strategy