Monthly Archives: November 2017

Nagarjuna: Founder of Madhyamika School of Mahayana Buddhism

Nagarjuna (A. D. 200-300) was an Indian Buddhist philosopher who founded the Madhyamika School of Mahayana Buddhism. He studied both the secular and religious branches of Hindu knowledge before turning to Buddhism and spent most of his life in the great Mahayana centers of learning in south-east India. Two of the compositions credited to Nagarjuna are verses of counsel to a king, which recommends that he achieved some distinction during his lifetime. Other sources specify that he also served as abbot of a monastery and that he was the instructor of Aryadeva, the author of important Madhyamika texts.

Nagarjuna —The Most Sophisticated Buddhist Philosopher

Nagarjuna's Philosophy in the Buddhist Tradition Two texts most clearly present Nagarjuna’s views: The Mulamadhyamikakarika (Stanzas of the Middle Way) and the Vigrahavyavartani (Treatise on Averting Arguments). The former is read and studied by philosophers of all major Buddhist schools of Tibet, China, Japan and Korea and is one of the most influential works in the history of Indian philosophy.

Nagarjuna’s stature in the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions is enormous and the Tibetan tradition even identifies him as a magician-alchemist. The Madhyamika School is characterized by its logical refutation and negation of all philosophical systems, —Buddhist and non-Buddhist alike—while claiming no unique philosophy of its own. Nagarjuna’s philosophical method is referred to as negative dialectics.

Nagarjuna is the Most Famous Thinker in the History of Buddhism After the Buddha Himself

Nagarjuna is the Most Famous Thinker in the History of Buddhism After the Buddha Himself Nagarjuna especially attacked the Adhidharmas, claiming that the real agenda of dharma theory, atomism, was not really momentarism, time or causality but a new form of anatta (substantialism.) It is an unfolding argument culminating in the triumphant assertion of the reality of only emptiness. Despite lacking any essence, he argues, phenomena exist conventionally, and conventional existence and ultimate emptiness are in fact the same thing. This represents the radical understanding of the Buddhist doctrine of the two truths, or two levels of reality.

Nagarjuna tried to re-establish Buddha’s middle path, affirming neither existence nor non-existence, permanence nor impermanence, identity difference, but showing the relativity of all conceptions. Even the basic elements of dharma, existence, are taken to be void of ultimate reality. The structure of ultimate transformation used by Nagarjuna requires an understanding that ideas, even ‘emptiness’, have no indispensable content. Non-attachment to mental images aids in the transformation of awareness, allowing one to perceive the arising and overindulgence of the world without interfering with it. The mind of inner cognition complete with its assertions and denials, is free from all attachment.

Nagarjuna’s Process of Ultimate Transformation

For Nagarjuna a general term simply distinguished a particular class of items from another class of items. The central organizing element in this structural process is the potency of a posture or vigilance that pervades all perceptions, sense of identity, feelings, concepts, or demeanor.

Nagarjuna, along with other Buddhists, pointed out how many people, though unaware, were being pushed by the very language and assumptions of language that they thought were helping them understand their existence. Such an interpretation utilizes a different norm for identifying authenticity than the one found in this structural process.

Nagarjuna's Process of Ultimate Transformation Similarly, the focus on a future fulfilment of a spiritual goal in one process may be inappropriate in another, for the release from evil and suffering in a context where there is a clear separation of time and eternity will be different from one where release is available only in a moment of existence by means of a shift in consciousness. The absolute is not within the sphere of mind.

The ignorance which is eliminated by insight is something more than just the lack of information or an inaccurate description of something. The realization of nirvana is not attaining a self-existent opposite to some sorrow—as was the highest reality conceived in some other forms of Indian spiritual life. Nirvana is the enlightened world, a way of being where concepts like good and evil are empty, without substance, where there is no birth and death, and where everything is totally interdependent and without abiding form.

The deepest illusions are thereby dissipated through the highest insight; these illusions are not simply faulty identification of subsisting entities, but affirming to the notion that identification of entities can insure absolute truth. The ideal authenticity, then, is not something other than what is right now; it is innate in the individual field of experiences that is indeed in fluctuation, and which can be cultivated and adroitly sensitized to other possibilities.

Nagarjuna’s Philosophy in the Buddhist Tradition

Nagarjuna: Founder of Madhyamika School of Mahayana Buddhism Meditation is a practice that has been used throughout the Buddhist tradition to de-automate habitual patterns of experience. While Nagarjuna did not advocate meditation directly in his Fundamentals of the Middle Way, there are texts that are credited to him, such as his “Letter to a Friend” which suggest that he accepted meditation as a critical part of the Buddhist path. The external world is gathered into the form of the deity. Nagarjuna states,

  • Know that there are three things that block the gate to the city of freedom, and that you must cast aside: sole reliance on rites and penance, perverted views and doubt. None of the joys of this life are desired.
  • Freedom depends upon you alone, for no one else can help you: strive in the four noble truths, with study and virtue and meditation. Their limitless qualities are a precious treasury. Similarly, within the nature there are also no path, meditation, and so forth.
  • Ever train yourself in higher virtue, higher wisdom, higher meditation, for within these three are gathered more than a hundred and fifty trainings. The subject is extinguished with the object. The wisdom of the path of meditation is called the wisdom of full attainment.

This liberation is expressed philosophically in the Buddhist tradition as the middle path between the extremes of essentialism and nihilism; it is articulated by Nagarjuna in a negative dialectic and the assertion that all phrenic, physical and emotional objects of vigilance.

Tagged
Posted in Faith and Religion

Dharmachakra and the Eightfold Path

Wheel of Konark is the same as the Dharmachakra of the Buddhists The dharma, the path to enlightenment, is often presented by a wheel, known as the Dharmachakra. Generally a dharma wheel will have eight spokes, representing each of the principles of the Eightfold Path:

  1. Right Views, which involve an accurate understanding of the true nature of things, specifically the four noble truths;
  2. Right Intention, which means avoiding thoughts of attachment, hatred, and harmful intent and promoting loving-kindness and nonviolence;
  3. Right Speech, which means refraining from verbal misdeeds, such as lying, backbiting and slander, harsh speech and abusive language, and frivolous speech and gossip;
  4. Right Action or Right Conduct, which is refraining from physical misdeeds, such as killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct;
  5. Right Livelihood, which entails avoiding trades that directly or indirectly harm others, such as selling slaves, selling weapons, selling animals for slaughter, dealing in intoxicants or poisons, or engaging in fortune-telling and divination;
  6. Right Effort, which is defined as abandoning unwholesome states of mind that have already arisen, preventing unwholesome states that have yet to arise, sustaining wholesome states that have already arisen, and developing wholesome states that have yet to arise;
  7. Right Mindfulness, which means to maintain awareness of the four foundations of mindfulness, viz., body, physical sensations, the mind, and phenomena; and
  8. Right Concentration, which is one pointedness of mind. It is defined generally as the concentration of the mind on wholesome objects.

The circle represents the perfect whole of the dharma, while the hub represents meditation, the core discipline in following the path. The rim represents samadhi, the composition of mind required by the teachings. Some wheels have more than eight spokes, often 12, 24, or 31. These numbers also have significance in more in-depth aspects of Buddhist philosophy.

Tagged
Posted in Faith and Religion

Everyone is a Self-made Person, but Only the Successful Admit it

The Fundamental Desire of Life is the Desire to Exist

Desire of Life is the Desire to Exist In the orchestration of our existence, our own efforts play only a small part. We live and have our being because we have inherited from successive generations all kinds of assets of body as well as of mind. From the moment we are born, a world we did not make is at our disposal, to furnish as the tools with which we begin shaping our destiny. The inconvenience that is taken in attending to tidiness, order, and temperance, never fails to be rewarded with a healthy ship’s company, to the great gratification and individual comfort of the commander, and the dreadful vantage of the public service.

Our assets are, however, not only the gifts of man and his world. They are also the gifts of a beneficent Creator. He has enriched the fruits of heredity with all kinds of additional endowments, which make us original creations, unique personalities, capable of carrying life into new directions. In addition, it is the Creator Who performs afresh the miracle of birth from the seeds of immortality, which He has planted in all His creatures.

What we make of all these gifts is our achievement, but when we sing the saga of our lives, other voices than our own join in to create the mighty harmony. Nevertheless, before we enter into a minute representative of the style in which vision is performed, we must explain more circumstantially the nature of light itself, which thus make the eye open of seeing.

Let no one claim then that he is a self-made man. No man can make himself, any more than a tree can. Such a claim is born of blindness, and it is the source of conceit and arrogance. A man whose eyes have been opened to the wonder of life knows that his existence is a privilege, a blessing, a gift. Moreover, he feels due humility.

It will break free of all thralldoms and present itself. You cannot suppose how much they were both ridiculed for their discernment. It does not punctuate the opposite qualities of yielding, letting go and relinquishing. The dance band had arrived, set up, and done sound checks during the later afternoon, so that when the music started it would be passable.

The Destination of Life is Not to Win

The Destination of Life is Not to Win The first rule is to retrench one-third part from the flesh eaten at dinner; of whatever kind that is. If we did not use our agency to receive and act on what others have done for us, we would not have benefited. Russell Means, the prominent activist for the rights of Native American people, wrote in For America to Live, Europe Must Die,

Humans are the weakest of all creatures, so weak that other creatures are willing to give up their flesh that we may live. Humans are able to survive only though the exercise of rationality since they lack the abilities of other creatures to gain food through the use of fang and claw.

But rationality is a curse since it can cause human beings to forget the natural order of things in ways other creatures do not. A wolf never forgets his or her place in the natural order. American Indians can. Europeans almost always do. We pray our thanks to the deer, our relations, for allowing us their flesh to eat; Europeans simply take the flesh for granted and consider the deer inferior. After all, Europeans consider themselves Godlike in their rationalism and science. God is the Supreme Being; all else must be inferior.

It is a reality we perceive to be impelled by a series of events we are caught up in, within which we live and look for happiness, but which, in truth, is a rat race to nowhere. The key difference of opinion between a list post and a how-to post is that readers do not demand to abide by the list from start to end: they can dip in and use those points that seem most applicable to their own state of affairs. Consequently, these issues are substantial. The outcome of such methods is but unappealing.

The destination of life is not to win. The intention of life is to grow and to share. When you come to look back on all that you have done in life, you will get more satisfaction from the joy you have brought into other people’s lives that you will from the times that you surmount and overwhelmed them.

A person of understanding will never be arrogant. He will always walk humbly with his God. His was a humble plan, and worked a little.

Tagged
Posted in Investing and Finance Philosophy and Wisdom

The Grandeur of the Elephant Stables at Hampi, Capital of the Mighty Vijayanagara Empire

The Grandeur of the Elephant Stables at Hampi, Capital of the Mighty Vijayanagara Empire

The elephant stables are an imposing structure in an immense open space at Hampi, the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. True to its identity, every single fragment of the structure is colossal, like the Jumbo elephant itself.

Like many of the buildings in Hampi, the elephant stables show evidence of Indo-Islamic motifs while cut plaster decorations and arches are in the Deccani Islamic style.

At the side of the Lotus Mahal is a row of eight high domes of the elephant stables that shows early Indo-Islamic architectural influences, and gives you an idea of the importance accorded both to ceremonial as well as battle elephants.

Impressive Domes of the Hampi Elephant Stables

Impressive Domes of the Hampi Elephant Stables

Essentially, the elephant stables structure is an oblong construction running to 85 meters from south to north and its depth is 9 meters. There are eleven compartments or rooms, five on each side with one in the center. All the cells are of identical measurement, each side measuring 6 meters. The middle cell has a stairway leading to the rooftop of the building, which has ten domes of different shapes; the middle cell has a double storied pillared pavilion, which is partially destroyed. The impressive domes display Islamic architectural types and add a distinguished and colossal look to the structure. There is a variation in these domes. Some are rounded; some have twelve angles, while yet others have sixty-two flutings.

The cells have tall arched openings to the west whereas there are small accesses at the east. Some of these cells are interconnected also. The cells have thick and strong walls. At the roof level, wood was implanted which perhaps contained iron rings or hooks so that the elephants could be shackled. The arched entrances and flat domes are of Bahamani style and it is hard to explain why the Vijayanagara kings used Islamic architectural features for this building.

Even though the native belief connects this building with elephants, some scholars question its exact suggestion. But historical contexts do not subsist in themselves; they must be defined, and in that sense constructed, by the historian afore the explanatory work of engendering explanation, and of interpreting the past. Vijayanagara army had several elephants but this building is meant to accommodate only eleven elephants. Perhaps these were imperial elephants. King Deva Raya II was a great lover of elephants. It is possible that these stables were built during his period.

Elephant Stables and Vijayanagara King Devaraya II

Elephant Stables and Vijayanagara King Deva Raya II

Vijayanagara empire’s historians have long grappled with the undertaking of construing chronicles that, even though written in the past tense, are nevertheless demanding, if not unfeasible to resolve with each other or indeed, the modern historical sense of there having been a singular past. Reigned over by four consecutive dynasties of kings, the Vijayanagara institution transformed itself from a small regional kingdom to the foremost political and military power in southern India within the period of about two hundred years. The power and grandeur of the Vijayanagara Empire reached during the sovereignty of Deva Raya II (1422–46) reached its pinnacle under the able and powerful tenure of Krishnadeva Raya (1505–29). There was a resurgence of art and architecture on an unprecedented scale during his reign. Vijayanagara was undoubtedly a name to conjure within the lands south of the mighty Tungabhadra river.

Many contemporaneous foreign essayists of the period have given eloquent testament to the elephants of the Vijayanagara period. Abdul Razzak (the prominent Persian ambassador who visited in 1443 and wrote about the extraordinary wealth of Vijayanagara) states that Deva Raya II had more than one thousand elephants grand as hills and colossal as demons. Deva Raya II took on many designations associated with elephants and even circulated gold coins with elephant on the obverse.

From all these specifics, it can be construed that elephants played a major role during the Vijayanagara period not only in military conflicts but also in festivals and religious pageants of royals in the same way as Dasara in Mysore. These stables signify the military might of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Tagged
Posted in Travels and Journeys

Zen Koan #12: Parable of Happy Chinaman – Buddhist Teaching on Human Dignity

Zen Koan #12: Parable of Happy Chinaman - Buddhist Teaching on Human Dignity A mind of equanimity is a mind without distinctions; in other words, there is no rest and no activity. Some people think that Zen advertises moral indifference, that Zen practitioners in general are free to ignore ethical principles. Discombobulating is the raw material of sapience. The problem of being prey to someone else’s power is reinforced, of course, by one’s own infantile desire to be taken care of. There is nothing outside of your mind.

Progress is measured in terms of time, but when faith and mind are not separate, these distinctions are abolished. However, if nothing is real or lasting, what is the point of coming to retreat and practicing Zen? The point is that during the course of practice, you may come to realize that everything around you, as well as whatever you seek out of life, is illusory. Just as fish cannot live without water, compassion cannot develop without agelessness. For the practice of Zen, you must pass the barrier set up by the ancient masters of Zen.

To attain to marvelous enlightenment, you must completely extinguish all the delusive thoughts of the ordinary mind. We run into trouble only when we close down and couldn’t care less—when we’re too cynical or depressed or full of doubt even to bother.

Zen Koan: “Happy Chinaman” Parable

Anyone walking about Chinatowns in America with observe statues of a stout fellow carrying a linen sack. Chinese merchants call him Happy Chinaman or Laughing Buddha.

This Hotei lived in the T’ang dynasty. He had no desire to call himself a Zen master or to gather many disciples about him. Instead he walked the streets with a big sack into which he would put gifts of candy, fruit, or doughnuts. These he would give to children who gathered around him in play. He established a kindergarten of the streets.

Whenever he met a Zen devotee he would extend his hand and say: “Give me one penny.” And if anyone asked him to return to a temple to teach others, again he would reply: “Give me one penny.”

Once he was about his play-work another Zen master happened along and inquired: “What is the significance of Zen?”

Hotei immediately plopped his sack down on the ground in silent answer.

“Then,” asked the other, “what is the actualization of Zen?”

At once the Happy Chinaman swung the sack over his shoulder and continued on his way.

Buddhist Insight on Human Dignity

Buddhism does not support passivity in the face of violence and evil. Beings by karma are bound to the individual human dignity. That blankness is connected with mindfulness. All of these parts are the path and bring a certain joy, certain strength to our practice. You have to relate to your country, its politics, its culture. It came to life after several hundred years of philosophical development. The British Zen Buddhist author and psychotherapist David Brazier writes in The Feeling Buddha,

Enlightenment means to experience with complete clarity the fact of dukkha – the travail of being born, working, relating to others, growing up, growing old and so on – is part and parcel of human dignity; that all attempts to run away from it are undignified and that this applies just as much to spirituality, psychologically or socially sophisticated forms of escapism as it does to worldly or primitive ones. People are not made happy by an endless supply of pleasures. many rich people are miserable. People are happy when they live noble lives. Misery is not created by lack of pleasure, but by resentment, bitterness, and the degradation of character. Rich people do not generally accumulate their wealth in order to have pleasures. They accumulate wealth because they think this will make them respectable. In this way they hope to set their minds at rest. Of course, in reality quite the opposite often results. The means by which wealth is accumulated often involves action which leaves a stain of guilt that the person never manages to live down.

Tagged
Posted in Faith and Religion

The Best Leaders Model Their Stated Priorities

Leaders Model Stated Priorities

Everyone is a boss-watcher. “Other people take their cue from the leader—not from what the leader says, but what the leader does,” says Colin Powell.

The leader is always in a glass house. People listen to the words, but what really interests them is what the boss does. People carefully track what questions he asks, what reports she asks for and reads, what meeting agenda priorities he sets, what resources she allocates, whom he criticizes, what thrills or angers her, whom he lauds, whom she promotes, whom he assigns to which project, and whom she visits and hangs out with.

People observe these things, and then, regardless of the boss’s words they draw conclusions about what’s really important, what’s truly urgent, what must be the top priorities, and who the leader is. When the leader’s words and deeds match, the leader’s credibility and influence go up in their eyes. When they don’t, credibility and influence are diminished. This is such a powerful and predictable process that leaders have no neutral actions. Each action or decision has great symbolic impact.

Too often, leaders aren’t aware that they’re being observed, and that colleagues have long memories. Some leaders think nothing about promising something and not delivering, or stating a priority and not “living” it. If an executive states that being customer-centric is a priority, but he is not spending more time with customers, then he’s not walking the talk He’s not doing the work of leadership. If she doesn’t personally insure that capital allocation, performance metrics, sourcing, logistics, scheduling, information systems, and compensation reflect a customer-centric priority, she’s not walking the talk She’s not doing the work of leadership. In both cases, it’s not likely that innovative, proactive customer-centric work will be done.

In contrast, effective managers know that their glass house offers enormous leverage in boosting performance, as well as their own credibility and influence—but only if they become the ultimate role model. For example, if a leader talks about honesty, candor, open-door communication, collaboration, or risk-taking, then that leader more than anyone else—must model and support those virtues. The leader must not only be honest and candid, but also ensure that employees who do the same are properly acknowledged, rewarded, and protected. When people see these actions, they know that they can count on their leader, and are more likely to cultivate those virtues themselves. The leader’s power and integrity are enhanced in the process.

Effective managers become the ultimate role model

How powerful is the “glass house effect”? Well, consider how it might be applied to a current vexing national problem. Over the past 24 months the integrity and liquidity of our capital markets have been assailed by a wave of scandals revolving around fraudulent financial reporting, sleight-of-hand accounting, piracy in the executive suites, and incestuous self-serving relationships among accountants, consultants, analysts, and investment bankers. The effect not only extends the economic recession, but it also breeds doubt and cynicism about the market system.

When President Bush spoke about corporate malfeasance, about righting wrongs and putting the bad guys away, few question his sincerity. But to take advantage of the “glass house” effect, he could use the “bully pulpit” of his office to do the following:

  • Talk frankly about honesty, full disclosure and transparency in reporting.
  • Decry phony revenues, bogus earnings, spinning IPO’s, cozy analyst investment banker relationships, and risk-free executive compensation.
  • Cite high-profile examples of greed and deceit, express serious concern, and offer inspirational alternatives.
  • Refer to abuses in governance and underscore the fiduciary responsibility.
  • Discuss accountability for illegal activity, including civil litigation, criminal prosecution, and imprisonment.
  • Tell new SEC head William Donaldson to aggressively pursue corporate corruption and market abuses to avoid conflict-of-interest charges.
  • Tell us that his new team will be packed with people of impeccable independence, integrity, and competence.
  • Raise the SEC’s annual funding as the agency copes with many cases. Leaders define their agenda by the resources they allocate to it.
  • Insist that the agency aggressively pursue corporate corruption.

Great leaders mobilize people to do extraordinary things with simple ideas. During the 20 years that Jack Welch transformed GE, he was only committed to a few strategic priorities: globalization, total quality, boundaryless, de-bureaucratization, and e-commerce. None of these initiatives were new. Many companies had similar objectives. But Welch demonstrated a fanatic obsession with driving each initiative, and held his managers accountable for achieving results. GE people knew where their CEO stood. Welch’s approach was aligned with Powell’s advice: “Figure out what is crucial, and stay focused” When people see that resolve, they “get” what their mindsets and behaviors ought to be.

Great leaders clearly state their principles and goals and follow through. They live the principles, own the goals, and ensure that everyone is aware of it. If you’re a leader, learn to use your visibility to your advantage.

Tagged
Posted in Management and Leadership

Saints Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas Vilified Women in Their Writings

You can find other disparaging remarks about women throughout the history of philosophy. Consider what seminal Catholic thinkers like Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas had to say about women:

  • “Woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active force in the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of woman comes from defect in the active force or from some material indisposition…”
    Source: St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, q. 92 a. 1
  • “Good order would have been wanting in the human family if some were not governed by others wiser than themselves. So by such a kind of subjection woman is naturally subject to man, because in man the discretion of reason predominates.”
    Source: St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, q.92 a.1 reply 2
  • “I don’t see what sort of help woman was created to provide man with, if one excludes the purpose of procreation. If woman was not given to man for help in bearing children, for what help could she be? To till the earth together? If help were needed for that, man would have been a better help for man. The same goes for comfort in solitude. How much more pleasure is it for life and conversation when two friends live together than when a man and a woman cohabitate?”
    Source: St. Augustine, Genesi Ad Litteram, 9, 5-9
Tagged
Posted in Faith and Religion

The Traditional Celebration of Thanksgiving

The First Thanksgiving (1912--1915) by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris

Thanksgiving is a traditional celebration to mark an auspicious event.

Religious celebrations of gratitude took place among many settlers in the Americas in the 1600s. In the United States, the traditional celebration of Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday in November is associated with the Pilgrim settlers of the Plymouth colony in present day Massachusetts.

The most common account of the first Thanksgiving links the celebration to 1621, when the Pilgrims joined with indigenous people to give thanks for a particularly good harvest after a difficult year within the settlement. Several other settlements in the Americas around this time also have claims for celebrating early Thanksgiving.

The idea of the Thanksgiving event had its origins in England during the Protestant Reformation, when reformers were anxious to replace Catholic public holidays with feast days of their own. A tradition began of celebrating fortuitous events with a special thanksgiving meal; conversely, adverse events were marked by a day of fasting. It was hoped that giving thanks to God might bring further good fortune, while fasting might prevent additional disasters.

Even though several of the symbols and traditions of Thanksgiving are taken from the story of the Pilgrims at the Plymouth colony, the holiday is now a celebration of a spirit of gratefulness rather than a commemoration of a particular day or event. As a religious celebration, Thanksgiving is intended to remind those who celebrate it of God as the provider of all good things. Thanksgiving in the United States is also celebrated with a secular appreciation of the work ethic and perseverance of the early U.S. colonists.

Happy Thanksgiving

Here is the Proclamation of Thanksgiving by Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America. It was issued by William H. Seward, Lincoln’s Secretary of State on October 3, 1863.

The year that is drawing towards its close, has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature, that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign States to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere except in the theatre of military conflict; while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union. Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence, have not arrested the plough, the shuttle or the ship; the axe has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege and the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years with large increase of freedom. No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and one voice by the whole American People. I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens. And I recommend to them that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to His tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty Hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquillity and Union.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this Third day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the Eighty-eighth.

By the President: Abraham Lincoln

William H. Seward,

Secretary of State

Tagged
Posted in Faith and Religion Music, Arts, and Culture

19 Types of Leadership Styles

Types of Leadership Styles Which means we all have the ability to provide leadership in some way: as professionals, as parents, as spouses, and as friends. To find a reason to want to lead we only need remember that when we provide leadership, we create value. And value creation creates happiness. Few things bring as much satisfaction as a job well done. They opposed the centralization of authority in the revolutionary leadership, agitating for moderation and “democracy”, and they enacted a number of important social reforms.

We are re-evaluating leaders, downgrading those who are guided by history, not vision; by what they know, not what they can find out; by what has worked before, not what works now; by a sense of power, not a sense of people. From experience, I draw these 19 types who are less than real leaders:

  1. Manipulator. He believes everyone has a price. He exploits the system and mistrusts people who have no hidden agenda or naked ambition or who appear to be straight arrows. Whatever his self-indulgence, he expects it to be reflected in his people. He is attracted to those who display similar inclinations. Using fear and intimidation, he manipulates people.
  2. Types of Leadership Styles: Frustrated Participant Frustrated Participant. He wants to believe in the system and sees himself as dedicated, loyal, and ambitious. He absorbs inconsistency in policy, flagrant violation of fairness, and blatant duplicity without protest or complaint, feeling he must protect the company’s image. He anticipates his boss’ needs, whether appropriate or not, feeling that it is safer to go along to get along rather than to challenge a boss.
  3. Inside Outsider. He experiences inclusion, but not as a player. Ever the outsider, he is a specialist with skills but never with line authority. He may have impressive credentials, pay his dues, and be initiated into the culture of the elite, but he is never identified by it as “one of us.” Much as he tries to enhance his status, his unique skills only exaggerate the difference, eclipsing his perceived effectiveness. So, he experiences being needed but not wanted. If he can handle this, he will be tolerated. If not, he will lose his influence and his station.
  4. Winning Side Saddler. He is a pyramid climber, pleaser, anticipator, and executer, dispatching issues before they become problems, endearing him to his bosses. He is a chameleon with no coherent point of view, a hunch player who knows every verse of the “CYA” book. He tells you what you want and expect to hear. The more uptight people are, the more prominent his role, as he provides a buffer to the ugly edges of reality. In case of a power shift, he has already saddled the winning horse.
  5. Types of Leadership Styles: Nostalgic Elitist Nostalgic Elitist. He is a vestige of past glory who lives in a black-and-white world of workers and managers, thinkers and doers, educated and the ignorant. He takes cynical delight in the vocabulary of “social change,” as he sees it changing nothing, merely manipulating fads and slogans with smoke and mirrors. He prefers fixed structures and closed systems. He can’t fathom why his authority is challenged, why the less gifted are to be treated as equals, or why his superiority is not self-evident.
  6. Waiter in the Wings. He appreciates both his potential and obstacles to success. While others complain about change, he is husbanding his resources, planning tactics, and developing strategy. he has no plans to tie his future to a sinking ship. Operationally, he makes himself indispensable, balancing stealth with openness, insouciance with results. He is waiting in the wings to make his move. As relaxed as he seems, he is wound as tight as piano wire. He can only wait so long before he moves on.
  7. Happy in Harness. He accepts his role because he loves what he does, never wanting to be anything else. Each promotion is a genuine surprise. By nature, he is appreciative and generous, easy to work with or for, competent without being righteous, confident without being arrogant. He creates a climate for growth. He is trusted and fair, consistent and honest. He would never countermand an executive order or bad-mouth a superior. He takes pride in his position.
  8. Quiet Soldier. He is more comfortable as a follower and identifies with the aspirations and frustrations of his subordinates. By inclination, he is a doer rather than a thinker, an implementer rather than, an innovator. He is a frustration to those in charge. They see him having the talent but not the resolve to accept risk or do more. Moody and taciturn, he is apt to accept untenable situations rather than do something about them. His predilection to wait for orders can derail projects and miss deadlines.
  9. Victim. The victim has a martyr complex. He expects to be trusted without being trustworthy, given cherished assignments without being dependable, and taken at his word without being credible. Call it tunnel vision, myopia, or hindsight, he has it. He delights in the failures of others, but finds no humor when others delight in his. When others fail, they’re incompetent; when he fails, others let him down. He claims other people ban him because of his race, religion, ethnicity, status, education, accent, or origin. If that fails, he is discriminated against because he is too fat, thin, short, tall, old, young, quiet, or loud. He justifies his performance—and he wants blame put on everything and everybody.
  10. Types of Leadership Styles: Unbending Idealist Unbending Idealist. He idealizes life and lives in a dream world. He is a product of film and television and prefers to see the world as it should be and himself as a savior of lost causes and lost souls, explaining away failures and suspect conduct. Consequences are suspended, forgiven, or ignored. The idealist suffers incurably from naivete, failing to see it as compassionate condescension. With every failure he reinvents himself, never seeming to register the folly of his ways. His idealism drops like a stone into cynicism once brutal reality meets unbending idealism.
  11. Adventurer. Consumed with the adventure, he is out to push the envelope. When cornered, he comes out swinging with a “red pencil,” a caustic remark, or an exception to the rule. He can lie with a straight face, looking his accuser in the eye. He has no sense of consequences, as it never occurs to him that he might be caught, humiliated, and terminated. Constantly challenging himself to be more sensational, he cuts corners, fakes results, doctors the books, invents fictitious deeds, and musters the support of legitimate doers by guile, vanity, and flattery.
  12. Spin Doctor. As the public relations conduit, he is the eyes and ears and voice of authority. His concern—to put a good face on a bad situation—requires him to be a good liar. He tends to reduce everything to PR speak with cavalier flamboyance, dismissing the facts, often believing in his own rhetoric or press release. He is apt to be a quick-witted, congenial, backstage performer.
  13. Reluctant Soldier. Neither leader nor follower, he simply is. Everyone knows and tolerates him. No one expects anything from him, and nobody does anything about him. He’s been at the same job at the same level for years and received increased compensation and entitlements for doing less and less. Survival is his sharpest tool.
  14. Types of Leadership Styles: Unforgivable Prodigal Son Unforgivable Prodigal Son. This person once stumbled badly. His faux pas was of such magnitude to embarrass the company but not warrant dismissal. Once he was punished, he returned to his job stigmatized, and became a pariah with his guilt whispered behind his back. New people are told to stay clear of him. He tells new people of his crime before they ask. Gossip and innuendo are his weapons of mass emotional destruction.
  15. Over Achiever. By educating himself beyond his intelligence or by pushing his ambition to the brink, he is exposed to situations beyond his capacity to cope. Action is his call and shooting from the hip is his modus operandi. He has a surface acumen that is engaging and catches the eye of his superiors. His intensity is contagious. He is likeable and agreeable. He has lived so long with his limitations, which he hides in a swirl of activity, that they have become assets. He is better suited to manage things than people.
  16. Messianic Manager. He sees himself as a savior. His approach to modify reality is to create the culture that supports the interests of the organization and fulfills the needs of workers and, voila! Leaders and workers get off the dime, move on to the same page, and work gets done. He thinks that giving workers everything but the kitchen sink will cause them to applaud leadership with high-level performance. This does not happen. Rather, the culture stumbles into a permissive complacency, where workers waffle in terminal adolescence.
  17. Pained Participant. He is able, but the world is organized against him. A tragic figure, he is like a Dante who has lost the keys to his own inferno, caged in the pain of self-pity, seeing his situation as unique and his dilemma untenable. He wrestles with his confusion in dialectic, which he will gladly share with you. Life is against him because he doesn’t have the right parents, proper education, or the breaks. He is in a cage of his making with an invisible ceiling enclosed in invisible walls. Life, the system, the company, circumstances have all wronged him. His anxieties plague operations.
  18. Types of Leadership Styles: Missionary Missionary. He spreads the gospel according to the corporate fathers to the masses. He does this without question or reflection. He is an acolyte, and they are his knowing masters. When this mission is consistent with what is needed, everything works smoothly. When the mission conflicts with need, derailing momentum and causing tension, he takes responsibility. He is on a mission to help people be in sync with policy. He has a strong character but a narrow point of view.
  19. The Professional. The professional’s degree and title are often used to justify his pay grade and benefit package. He is rarely schooled in the discipline of his charges but believes that he can manage anything. He feels ordained to position, power, and perks. He has this romantic notion of being instantly gratified with affluence, prestige, privilege and trust without earning any of it. Lost on him is the import of experience and the benefit of failure in learning. For him, acquiring credentials is a way to avoid struggle and pain. He wants a position, not a job; desires authority without accountability; and expects to be measured in terms of time spent doing rather than results. To him, having presence is more effective than purpose; making an impression more defining than making a difference; having a winning personality more the focus than winning performance. He is programmed to behave in learned helplessness.

Contrast these types of leaderships with someone who genuinely believes themselves to be a capable leader. Such a person can recognize their mistakes without succumbing to paralyzing insecurity. They can counterattack pleas for inappropriate special treatment lacking fair justification because to give in wouldn’t fit with their vision of good leadership and because they can survive being disliked. Others may disagree with their decisions, disapprove of their vision, but seldom question their skills as a leader.

Tagged
Posted in Management and Leadership

Core Challenges to Contextual Leadership

Core Challenges to Contextual Leadership

Leadership is a socially constructed phenomenon and that organizational members act to co-create leadership.

Leadership is a vibrant, contextual phenomenon that occurs in a multitude of different organizations or systems. Mostly, we can learn from them that leadership is more multifaceted than standard business contexts imply, and that precious lessons can be gained from the characteristics and foibles of leadership in many contexts.

On the one hand, contextualizing leadership in modern organizations, which are complex systems, is more than conventional approaches can encapsulate. On the other hand, leadership theory and research in nonstandard contexts are too vague and imprecise about their contributions to the general field of leadership.

  • Pressure and competition. Leaders are under high, individualized pressure to be successful, while they can only create empowering conditions for organizational effectiveness
  • High risk. Navigating the boundaries of “life or death” contexts, leaders’ actions have possibly devastating consequences for themselves and others
  • Creativity and innovation. Leaders are challenged with the paradox between basically striving for creativity and innovation, while eventually having to meet specified targets
  • Care and community. Contextual conditions hamper leaders’ attempts and responsibilities to take care of others’ wellbeing
  • Adaptability. Leaders who plot a course through complex contexts need to be flexible in their approach to leadership, tailoring it to the idiosyncrasies of each context
  • Perseverance. Leaders need persistence to surmount drawbacks and failure in order to ultimately grow and succeed. Organizations nurture this process by providing leaders with a supportive environment, while leaving room for personal growth
  • Handling paradox. In complex contexts, paradox may arise in many different forms. Leaders can handle it, perhaps, by using formal and informal structures, and managing internal processes and external views of an organization concurrently
  • Leading with values. For the sake of their own and others’ wellbeing as well as sustained organizational success, leaders need to reflect and act based on their fundamental beliefs and moral values
  • Inventing the future. Leaders nurture creativity through socially determined processes. New approaches such as play enable leaders to envision potentialities of the future
  • Sharing responsibility. The complexities of modern organizations require leadership in the collective, for example, in the form of shared values-based leadership in communities
Tagged
Posted in Management and Leadership