Monthly Archives: October 2015

The Cowboy and Masculine Trademark of the Marlboro Man Brand Image

Research has proved that when products are in effect equivalent, people go with what’s familiar, even if the product is only familiar because they know its name from advertising and recognize the brand.

'Twenty Ads That Shook the World' by James Twitchell (ISBN 0609605631) According to James Twitchell, author of “Twenty Ads That Shook the World”, the key insight that shaped modern advertising came to cigarette manufacturers in the 1930s. Twitchell’s book is subtitled, “The Century’s Most Groundbreaking Advertising and How It Changed Us All.”

During market research, cigarette manufacturers ascertained that smokers who taste-tested several cigarette brands without recognizing which was which couldn’t tell them apart. So, if any manufacturer wanted to sell more of his specific brand, he was either going to have to make it distinguished or make consumers think it was distinctive, which was significantly trouble-free. That insight give birth to the practice of selling a product by associating it with a glamorous lifestyle.

Marlboro is one of the best successful examples of changing the consumer behavior through a complete gender re-positioning. Ad agency Leo Burnett’s brilliant campaign made Marlboro one of the most valuable brands of all time. By creating the “Marlboro man,” Burnett transformed what was seen as an very feminine brand of filter cigarettes into a rugged, sexy masculine one in a matter of months. The image of the “Marlboro Man” projected rugged manliness in an effort to position Marlboro as a filter with flavor.

The Marlboro Man was first conceived in 1954. As the all-American cowboy, he was rugged and he was cool. He was the epitome of masculinity.

Back then, Jack Landry, the brand manager for Marlboro at Philip Morris said,

In a world that was becoming increasingly complex and frustrating for the ordinary man, the cowboy represented the antithesis—a man whose environment was simplistic and relatively pressure free. He was his own man in a world he owned.

Leo Burnett experimented with other ‘Marlboro Men’—ball players, race car drivers, and tattoo-covered hunks. They were all successful, but it was the cowboy that really “shook the world.” The macho spokes-model traveled the world. He crosses cultures and translated ideas of masculinity in a nonverbal manner, and became one of the most famous icons of all time.

In 1955, when the Marlboro Man campaign was launched, sales were at $5 billion. By 1957, sales were at $20 billion, representing a 300% increase within two years. Philip Morris easily overcame growing health concerns through the Marlboro Man campaign, highlighting the success as well as the tobacco industry’s strong ability to use mass marketing to influence consumers.

Tagged
Posted in Business and Strategy Health and Fitness

The Rise of the Fast Casual Restaurants

Fast Casual Restaurants - Mexican concepts

Fast Casual is the fastest growing segment of the restaurant industry. They bridge a gap in the market between fast-food restaurants and casual dining restaurants. The National Restaurant Association recently endorsed a group of 15 fast casual restaurant brand executives to its newly formed Fast Casual Industry Council and recognizes it as one of the fastest-growing segments of the restaurant industry today.

With a hybrid approach, fast casual restaurant chains such as Shake Shack, Nando’s chicken restaurants, Panera Bread, Noodles & Company, Qdoba Mexican Grill, Baja Fresh, and Chipotle Mexican Grill have been winning customers by offering the following enhancements.

  1. Food Quality: They promise “fresh” food, meaning at the very least not frozen or without as much processed ingredients. Chipotle also says it uses, where possible, meat from animals raised without hormones or antibiotics, and organic and locally grown vegetables. Chipotle is at the forefront of a consumer shift toward naturally-raised proteins and organic produce. Though more costly to source, these fresh ingredients are a key source of differentiation and pricing power.
  2. Service Type: They offer diners a high level of customization, such as choosing each ingredient in a sandwich, burrito or burger. This appeals to fussy eaters and those with allergies. The service is not always as quick as at a burger joint but, it seems, quick enough. Some fast-casual chains let diners order at their tables.
  3. The Rise of the Fast Casual Restaurants Menu Prices: They have clever pricing that lets can allow optimization of profits. They offer some dishes at around the same price as those at burger joints, but they seem to be better than McDonald’s at nudging diners towards pricier dishes and extras. Fast-casual chains typically manage to squeeze 40% more out of each diner’s wallet than fast-food joints do. For example, at Chipotle, the average customer spend per visit per restaurant in 2013 stood at $11.56, one of the highest in the fast casual segment, with a growth rate of 1% over the prior year.
  4. Atmosphere and Decor: They give each outlet or store a touch of distinctiveness. This distances them in the eyes of consumers from the “corporate” feel of burger chains. For instance, Nando’s is known to decorate its restaurants with South African art. Even if not technically in the fast casual category, a reinvigorated food and beverage menu and store redesigns have improved the Starbucks customer experience, penetrated new day parts, and improved unit-level productivity metrics.

Both fast casual and quick-service both provide food order and pick-up services from a counter, which vastly improves speed of service.

We forecast that the fast-casual restaurant category to outpace the broader restaurant industry over the next several years.

Fast-casual restaurant competition is intensifying, and switching costs are nonexistent. We estimate that Mexican concepts make up nearly one fourth of the $38 billion fast-casual industry in the U.S.

Tagged
Posted in Business and Strategy

Creating a Positive Global Community

Creating a Positive Global Community

To create a positive global community, we need to meet three key challenges:

  1. Reaching out to humanity and avoiding isolationism. In the global community, it is easier to reach out and easier to become isolated. Superficial communication with everyone can lead to meaningful impact on no one. We need to be inspired and educated in the value of trying to benefit the world, not just ourselves. As the opportunities for huge individual achievement and wealth form, we need to better recognize people who make the transition from success to significance. Community heroes need to be celebrated based upon their skills in giving—not their skills in taking.
  2. Celebrating diversity and avoiding conformity. Our ability to adapt to changing situations is largely a function of our diversity. Language leads us to view the world in different ways and to have different approaches to making decisions and solving problems. We need to encourage diversity in language, culture, and lifestyle to ensure our own survival. Powerful countries must not try to make other countries become like them. Residents of the global community need to celebrate the fact that “different” may be synonymous with “fascinating,” “enhancing,” and even “necessary.”

Building long-term value and avoiding short-term stimulation. Residents of the global community have almost unlimited access to sources of pleasurable, short-term stimulation. Television, movies, interactive games, virtual-reality experiences, chat rooms, and other options are available at a low cost. Yet few of these activities produce any long-term value. We need to inspire and educate people about the value of “investing” for the future. Long-term value is the result of vision, creativity, innovation, and hard work. We now have access to tools with the potential to dramatically increase our productivity, but we also have access to countless pleasurable distractions that lead nowhere.

Challenges and Opportunities for the Global Community

Challenges and Opportunities for the Global Community

The global community has the potential to become a nightmare:

  • A world of conformity: with billions of people wearing the same baseball caps, baggy shirts, jeans, and shoes, speaking the same language, and laughing at the same jokes.
  • A world of short-term stimulation: with countless hours spent on mindless social media, television, video games, and a virtual reality that begins to eliminate the real human experience.
  • A world of isolation: with lives spent in front of a screen, striving for personal excitement and gain with little thought for others and even less effort devoted to helping future generations.

The global community has the potential to be a dream come true:

  • A world of diversity: with billions of people being able to communicate, trade, share cultural experiences, and appreciate each other, with access to a range of products, services, religions, cultures, philosophies, and languages.
  • A world building long-term value: with countless people working together to advance our cultures, building on what has been learned in a manner that is positive, efficient, and productive.
  • A world reaching out to humanity: with people helping each other in ways that could never have been imagined, celebrating each other’s success, and helping less fortunate members of the community become more productive.

Will the global community of the future become a nightmare or a dream come true? No doubt it will be some of both. The increase in global communication, trade, technology, and culture will continue. By inspiring people and educating them in the values of celebrating diversity, building long-term value, and reaching out to humanity, we can build a global community that is more like a dream come true.

Tagged
Posted in Business and Strategy Global Business

Delta Calls A Bubble in Wide-body Planes

Delta Calls A Bubble Wide-body Planes

Rumor has it that Delta has signed on to bring in eleven 777-200ERs, formerly operated by Singapore Airlines and its subsidiary Scoot. This would add to the 18 current 777-200ER/LRs in the Delta fleet. This is a significant fleet addition.

Interestingly, the ex-Scoot 777-200ERs are the ones that were previously abused on regional routes by SQ. They’re probably some of the highest cycle 777s in the world. Airfleets shows 10 Singapore Airlines and five Scoot Boeing 777-200ERs stored.

Delta 777-200LR Aircraft Given the expected growth in trans-Pacific traffic—particularly in China-US traffic—this seems like a solid strategy. Delta has expressed a strong interest in feeding China Eastern’s hub at Shanghai. There is no question that Delta is going to continue to double-down on Asian growth.

Delta’s fleet planning always bears watching. They have 12 remaining 747-400s and there’s a good chance that within the next 18 months, Delta will no longer fly any 747s in scheduled passenger fleets.

Interestingly enough, after Detla’s announcement of quarterly results on 14-Oct-2015, shares of Boeing tumbled 4% today thanks to comments from Delta management’s comments on supply-demand dynamics in the market for 777s. USA Today notes,

Delta Air Lines may be scooping up some used wide-body planes in the next few years, but CEO Richard Anderson says he’s waiting for prices to drop even more on the world market.

Anderson told reporters Wednesday on a call to discuss record third-quarter profits of $1.4 billion that low interest rates have created a bubble worldwide in wide-body planes. But there’s no deal yet…

“We do think that the aircraft market is going to be ripe for Delta over the course of the next 12 to 36 months,” Anderson said. “There will be some huge buying opportunities.”

There’s something self-serving about Delta’s comments about Boeing. Ken Herbert and Jonathan Morales of Canaccord Genuity (Canada’s largest independent investment dealer) noted,

It is true that the 777 market is softening, especially for the -200s. We hear that Kenya Airways is offering 4 on the market, Malaysian Airlines, which has 6, is putting them back with the lessor as it re-invents its fleet, and Singapore has the right to return 20 of its 777-200ERs, and in fact the first is back with Boeing. While Delta cited a $10M price, we are hearing prices in the ~$15M range, which would also entail a significant cabin reconfiguration expense, thus a total cost of $25M-$30M. The key we are watching is what Emirates will do with its 777-300ER extensions with GECAS, which we believe have been taken care of on at least 10 of its aircraft.

We believe Delta’s comments were also somewhat self-serving. We understand that Virgin Atlantic, a JV partner with Delta, is looking to acquire ~20 777s as part of its fleet re-equipage. Part of Virgin’s delay in announcing this order was the belief that 777 prices had further to fall. We believe Delta is looking to pay $6M/year to lease the aircraft, including the cabin reconfiguration, which the market is not yet offering. A330 lease rates are lower, and are complicated by the changing maintenance strategy at Rolls-Royce.

Could there be a possibility of some Airbus wide body deferrals? Remember that in November 2014, Delta ordered 25 Airbus A350-900 aircraft and 25 Airbus A330-900neo aircraft to replace older generation Boeing 747 and 767 aircraft starting in 2017 and 2019. The long-range Airbus A350-900 were intended for long-range routes between the U.S. and Asia. The wide-body A330-900neo were to be added to Detla’s medium-haul trans-Atlantic markets as well as some routes between the U.S. West Coast and Asia. Cancelling the A350 order only makes sense to me if Delta suddenly finds their CAPEX is too high and need to reduce CAPEX given that these 777-200ERs are a fair bit cheaper per frame then an A350-900. Delta has stated during past earning calls that they plan to have the 747s retired by 2017.

This is another trademark move by Delta’s leadership. Delta has been buying useful assets at very attractive prices especially when others want to dispose of them. They did the same with the B767-300s bought from Gulf Air in the 1990s, then with the MD90s from China Eastern few years ago.

Tagged
Posted in Airlines and Airliners

The Grand Sultanahmet Mosque or Blue Mosque: An iconic symbol of Istanbul

The Grand Sultanahmet Mosque or Blue Mosque, An iconic symbol of Istanbul

In the midst of the frenzied bazaars of Istanbul, and the haggling they flourish upon, there is one place where you can be guaranteed some peace and quiet. Take sanctuary from the heat of the day in Istanbul’s grandest mosque, the Blue Mosque—known to Istanbul residents as the Sultanahmet Mosque. This historic mosque has become an iconic symbol of Istanbul, immediately recognizable on the skyline of one of the grandest cities in the world.

Outside, pointed tapered minarets point to the sky and the immense dome dominates this side of the city, overlooking the Bosphorus. The mosque’s gardens attract lovers, who sit on the benches and watch the dancing fountains. A great courtyard leads visitors to the interior of the mosque, where low-hung chandeliers light up the delicate, complex blue tiles that earned the mosque its nickname. The sense of awe and admiration and veneration provoked in visitors by the cool, peaceful interior and the ambiance of tranquility is something that everyone should experience.

Sultanahmet Mosque was founded in the early seventeenth century. An untimely blunder in conversion meant that rather than having a gold minaret, as instructed, the architect built six minarets, confusing the words alti (six) and altin (gold). Opportunely, for the architect, the sultan liked the minarets so much that they—and his head—stayed put. Nowadays, it is the lone mosque in Turkey to have six minarets.

One of the most striking views of Istanbul from the Asian side of the city is still the one that was seen by those entering Istanbul by boat in days gone by. Those travelers would have seen the mosque’s impressive silhouette on the skyline long before they reached it. It is feasible to re-create the experience today on a river cruise along the Bosphorus at sunset.

History and the Architectural Structure of the Blue Mosque

Sultanahmet Mosque, Istanbul THE building complex, which is situated in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, consists of a mosque, a madrasah, and dar-ul kurra, an Ottoman primary school, a mausoleum, a market place, shops, a Turkish bath, a darulsifa and three fountains. After a celebration of the inauguration of the project in 1609 the construction started. The Architect of this complex was Sedefkar Mehmet Aga who was the head of architects after the death of Sinan the Architect.

The Dar-ul Hadith Madrasah is located at the northeast end of the mosque complex next to the tomb of Sultan Ahmed I. The structure is built around a rectangular shaped courtyard parallel to Qible (the direction of Mecca.) It contains a portico, series of cells, and a classroom, which encircle the inner garden.

At the middle of the inner garden there is a circle shaped small marble fountain. The fringe of the fountain, which is supported by six marble columns, does not exist now. The building has 24 cells (rooms), unlike the other madrasahs built in Ottoman period, where there are usually 12 or 16 cells. At most of the cells, windows are opening to the portico and outside of the madrasah. Every cell contains small niches and a fireplace. They are all covered by small domes. The classroom is situated at the north end of the madrasah. The entrance of the room is from the northeast wall of the place and it is three steps higher than the ground level.

Tagged
Posted in Travels and Journeys

Barriers to Successful Strategy Execution

Barriers to Successful Strategy Execution

As managers, we learn the truth what Dwight D. Eisenhower once said: “Plans are useless; planning is everything.” Indeed, execution—more than planning—determines success. Planning should be a process for building clarity and alignment, and positioning for efficient and effective execution.

Each year managers spend countless hours planning, budgeting, and forecasting. Most expect significant results from their plans. Unfortunately, even seasoned managers struggle to bring together people, strategies, and operations to achieve results.

We have identified five critical barriers to successful execution.

Barrier 1: The underlying strategy is not clear.

Confusion ranges from “fuzziness” in direction to not understanding what strategy is. A strategy represents set of decisions regarding the future and how to achieve success. Without a crisp articulation of these decisions, executives must reinvent them every time a new idea, opportunity, or problem arises—resulting in endless meetings, missed opportunities, a culture of indecision, and lower returns on executives’ time. A lack of clarity and agreement regarding the direction creates a void where personalities, politics, and oneupmanship prevail. Disagreements are played out in fragments of daily conversations and emails about what initiative is the priority at that moment, resulting in diluted progress, frustration, and missed opportunities.

Solution: Invest the time to get clear. Every executive team must agree on three points: Who are we? Where are we going? How are we going to get there? The level of clarity required for execution is derived from focusing on actionable answers. For example, there may be more value in defining the basic competitive advantage of the enterprise than in wordsmithing a mission statement. We suggest using a strategic framework to unify all aspects of strategy, one important element being a Quantified Vision. In addressing where are we going, it is powerful to paint a picture of the future with numbers to depict the evolution—not just financially, but also in terms of customers, products, and locations.

Barrier 2: The plan is overly optimistic.

Most executive teams tend to take on too much. The opportunities and issues they face make it difficult to prioritize initiatives and activities. As organizations evolve, they collect initiatives, processes, and pet projects that dilute focus and soak up resources. In addition, when executives plan, they often assume a perfect world—one free of distractions and problems. Such environments don’t exist. Runaway optimism builds failure into the plan, corrupting the notion of execution in the minds of the people required to follow-through and maintain the plan.

Solution: Define priorities. Creating an executable plan requires putting as much discipline and focus on those things that are not considered a priority for execution as those that are. The Not Do’ s must be identified along with Must-Do’s. From a list of initiatives, projects, and activities underway or planned, assign each item to one of three buckets: 1) must-do this year, 2) nice-to-have this year, and 3) not-do this year. Ask which items are most critical to executing them and achieving the vision. Put nice-to-have items in a holding bin. Put not-do activities and pet projects on hold. Cease activities relating to the not-do’s.

Barrier 3: No one is accountable for results.

Accountability motivates people to follow-through on their commitments. A driver of accountability is clarity on “who is on the hook for what.” Unfortunately, most managers focus the accountabilities on activities, as opposed to results. This creates challenges. You must ask: “Does all of this activity add up to real progress against strategic objectives?” “Are people makll1g progress against their commitments?” Without a clearly defined “finish line,” accountability will be confused or diluted.

Solution: Raise the stakes. As initiatives are prioritized, tie the initiative to a time horizon. Define a specific business result associated with effective execution of that initiative. What do we expect to get out of this initiative? When? Who is on the hook to make this happen? Defining initiatives in this manner raises the stakes for execution and enables people to fully commit. These initiatives become your business commitments.

Accountability for Results

Barrier 4: The plan has not been actively deployed.

Many executives complain about the difficulty of aligning around a vision or strategy. When asked what they do to deploy the vision or strategy, they respond with puzzled looks or explanations of communications programs. Issues of strategic importance require more than a 60-minute presentation in order for people to internalize and act on them. Treating complex issues in this manner usually reaps confusion at best. At worst, the result is mismatched expectations. To do their jobs, managers need to apply the strategy to their part of the business, ideally by working shoulder-to-shoulder with the primary authors of the strategic plan.

Solution: Mobilize the troops. Leaders should articulate the new strategy or plan to groups of managers in a series of deployment workshops. Leaders and managers participate in planning exercises in which the managers make decisions regarding what they must do differently as a result of the new strategic plan. This approach aligns, motivates, and mobilizes people to execute the strategy, as it builds momentum.

Barrier 5: The plan is static.

Within many expensive but ineffective plans is an unspoken assumption that nothing can change the validity of the plan. Of course, this is not true. Today major changes in the competitive landscape, economy, and key strategic areas must assumed. Strategic plans that do not account for change are doomed.

As internal and external conditions drive changes in priorities and resource allocations, one of three things impedes the use of the strategic plan:

  1. the plan not visible—after planning, it is locked away, disconnected from decision-making;
  2. the plan is not accessible it is held in secret, restricted to a few senior executives; or
  3. the plan is not changeable—it is a dense amalgam, making it difficult to update and manage.

If any of these situations exists, the effort required to maintain the plan becomes unwieldy and the plan becomes obsolete. Executives must then do so without the benefit of the analysis encompassed in the strategic plan or an understanding of how resources are to be applied to aid quick decision-making.

Solution: Create an execution process. Use strategy as a weapon to drive progress, manage accountabilities, evaluate performance and support decision-making. Make the plan visible, accessible and changeable. Use annual planning not to develop static plans, but to create dynamic processes: single-page executive dashboards, single-page management action plans, and strategy progress meetings. A dynamic planning and execution process helps an executive team understand progress, make decisions, and take action.

Conclusions

Successful strategy execution is a dynamic process. Strategy begins as a set of agreements about markets, products, revenues, and growth. The rest is execution. Unless there is a process for evaluating execution, making decisions, and closing the loop with the original strategy, the effort dies. Execution is a process for maintaining strategic progress. Refocus your planning activities on execution of plans. Use your planning process to steer around these barriers and on to success.

Tagged
Posted in Business and Strategy Management and Leadership

Delta Airlines Boeing 747-400 Retirement Schedule

Delta Airlines Boeing 747-400 Retirement Schedule

Delta has stated during past earning calls that they plan to have the 747s retired by 2017.

Delta’s accelerated phase-out of the 747s comes as the company shifts some of its capacity on trans-Atlantic flights to routes between the USA and Asia.

  • N194UA – Sep-2015
  • N171UA – Nov-2015
  • N179UA – Jun-2016
  • N180UA – Aug-2016
  • N182UA – Feb-2017
  • N181UA – Sep-2017
  • N174UA – Dec-2017
  • N175UA – May-2018
  • N177UA – Oct-2018

Additionally N105UA is being moved off the schedule to conserve hours and will be the low utilization charter aircraft.

In 2012, completed interior refurbishments on its Boeing 747-400s and released two YouTube videos showcasing the improvements to the 747-400 fleet: Business Elite flat bed and improved Delta Economy Class and behind the scenes on the 747-400 upgrades.

Tagged
Posted in Airlines and Airliners

Before You Start a Business

Before You Start a Business

  • Come up with a great business idea: Great businesses are built on great ideas. Discover your own great idea by drawing on some basic principles plus inspiration from famous entrepreneurs. But first, you must know who your customers are, which is not as straightforward as it sounds.
  • Understand your market: Starting a business is risky. Give your business the best chance to survive and thrive by taking three important steps: conduct primary and secondary research, understand the five key success factors, and create a competitive landscape table that rates the strengths and weaknesses of your competitors.
  • Prototype your idea to make your idea a reality: Add two important skills to your entrepreneurial toolkit: writing a theory of business and building a prototype. By following these two actions, you’ll be able to refine your business idea, demonstrate that it’s possible to achieve, and show that your idea delivers what your customers want.
  • Perform market analysis and develop a marketing strategy: Continue your examination of the business plan by focusing on the marketing portion, which should include your research and analysis of the market as well as a comprehensive marketing strategy. Stress the importance of telling a persuasive story.
  • Conduct risk analysis: Potential investors reading your business plan will want to know that you have a plan to deal with possible obstacles and catastrophic surprises. Discover tools such as the Porter Five Forces Model and the SWOT analysis, which provide insight into critical risks and how to address them.
Tagged
Posted in Business and Strategy Education and Career

The Undiscovered Charms of Xi’an, China

Sunset walk around City Wall in Xi'an, China

Xi’an, capital of Shaanxi province, is a beautiful city located in the middle of China with a civilization of long standing. It is treated as a capital of ancient China for over 1,000 years and has witnessed the replacement of 13 dynasties.

You will find a great number of historic interests all around the city when come to Xi’an for a tour.

Xi’an is far away from the sea and is situated on the loess plateau, the north of the Qinling Mountains, which results in the lack of precipitation and a dry climate. This climate and location, however, do form a fantastic place to live: no typhoon, no earthquake, no sandstorm and flood. In November, the city always becomes cold and you may take some overcoat in case of the chilly and dry air outside, but you don’t have to worry about the temperature inside for we have central heating system in houses.

There are so many interests in the downtown: the Bell Tower, the Drum Tower, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, the Small Wild Goose Pagoda, the City Wall, Datang Furong Garden, and Huaqing Hot Spring, etc.

Terra Cota Warriors in Xi'an, China

The scenery in the suburbs of this city is fascinating as well, the Terracotta Warriors and Horses, the wildlife in Qinling Mountains, the Temple of Dharma Gate, and the tomb of emperors. The Huashan Mountain is also a good natural landscape to go sightseeing though it is somewhat dangerous and you need to be cautious. It is not so easy to list and introduce them all, I hope you will come to Xi’an someday and feel the thickness of their history yourself.

Xi’an has good transport facilities, you can go to every destination by taking bus or subway, but the taxi in Xi’an is quite rare and strange, it is usual to wait for more than half an hour just for taking a taxi. Therefore, I recommend that preparing the public transportation for the historic interests before you come to Xi’an.

As for the hotel, my advice is it will be very convenient to go sightseeing if you choose to live in a hotel around the City Wall. You can go for a walk at the City Wall at night, appreciate the most magnificent sunset, and enjoy the delicious snacks at the night market in downtown.

Pita Bread Soaked in Lamb Soup in Xi'an, China

Not only is Xi’an famous for its long history and majestic interests, but the delicious native snacks as well. Pita Bread Soaked in Lamb Soup, cold noodle is famous all over this country and attracts a great many of tourists to Xi’an.

There is a famous snack street in Xi’an called “Huimin Street” just in the center of the city, Most of the native snacks are available at there and it is really a paradise for some Chowhound.

Xi’an is beautiful on spring and autumn, the flowers blossom on spring and the leaves gradually fall on autumn, at that time Xi’an is filled with vivid color, I am sure you will love it.

Tagged
Posted in Music, Arts, and Culture Travels and Journeys

The Comprehensive Benjamin Franklin Timeline

The Benjamin Franklin Timeline

Benjamin Franklin is revered as the truly distinguished American for his way of living. Assiduous, industrious, ingenious, opinionated, involved, entrepreneurial, intelligent, inquisitive, patriotic, and he lived to be old. He was a printer, a politician, an author, writer, and journalist. He was an inventor, a thinker, and a doer. He was an honest and righteous man who zealously wanted these colonies to be free, self-determining, flourishing, and protected.

He was one of the founders of the United States. America was very privileged to have this right man at the right time. He was well loved as a diplomat and he was a manufacturer of ink. This one man could have filled the lives of ten men with achievements and honors. Lastly, he was most mercifully and humanly flawed.

1706 … Born in Boston on January 17 (Jan. 6, 1705, Old Style). One of seventeen children born to his father, Josiah Franklin,and ten to his mother, Abiah Folger.

1714 … Attends Boston Latin School.

1718 … Apprenticed to brother James Franklin, a printer, who taught Ben the printing trade.

1722 … Writes Silence Dogood essays in the New-England Courant, his brother James’s newspaper.

1723 … Runs away to Philadelphia.

1724 … Moves to London with the intention to acquire equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia.

1725 … Wrote pamphlet “A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain” and, in it, rejected Christian dogma. Later regarded this pamphlet as an embarrassment.

1726 … Returns to Philadelphia.

1728 … Opens his own print shop.

1729 … Writes the “Busy-Body” series essays. Buys Pennsylvania Gazette.

1730 … Enters common-law marriage with Deborah Read. Son William born.

1731 … Founds Library Company of Philadelphia.

1732 … Son Francis born. Launches Poor Richard’s Almanac.

1733 … Moral Perfection Project that consists of twelve guidelines to help make himself morally perfect

1735 … Controversy over preacher Samuel Hemphill.

1736 … Clerk of Pennsylvania Assembly. Son Francis dies. Forms Union Fire Company, one of the first volunteer firefighting companies in America.

1737 … Made Philadelphia postmaster.

1741 … Launches General Magazine, which fails. Designs Franklin stove.

1743 … Daughter Sarah (“Sally”) born. Launches American Philosophical Society.

1745 … Collinson sends electricity pamphlets and glass tube.

'A Benjamin Franklin Reader' by Walter Isaacson (ISBN 0743273982) 1746 … Summer of electricity experiments.

1747 … Writes “Plain Truth.” Organizes militia.

1748 … Retires from printing business.

1749 … Writes proposal for the Academy (University of Pennsylvania).

1751 … Electricity writings published in London. Elected to Pennsylvania Assembly.

1752 … Kite and lightning experiment.

1753 … Becomes joint postmaster for America.

1754 … French and Indian War begins. Proposes Albany Plan of Union to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies.

1757 … Leaves for London as agent. Writes “Way to Wealth” and last Poor Richard’s Almanac. Moves in with Mrs. Stevenson on Craven Street in London.

1758 … Visits Ecton to research ancestry with son William.

1761 … Travels to Flanders and Holland with son William.

1762 … Returns to Philadelphia. Son William made royal governor of N.J., marries.

1763 … Postal inspection trip from Virginia to New England. French and Indian War ends.

1764 … Paxton Boys crisis. Defeated in bitter Assembly election. Returns to London as agent.

1765 … Stamp Act passes.

1766 … Testifies in Parliament against Stamp Act, which is repealed.

1767 … Townshend duties imposed. Travels to France.

1768 … Wages press crusade in London on behalf of the colonies.

1769 … Second visit to France.

1770 … Townshend duties repealed except on tea. Made agent for Massachusetts.

1771 … Begins Autobiography. Visits Ireland and Scotland.

1773 … Writes parodies “Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Smaller One” and “Edict of the King of Prussia.” Boston Tea Party.

1775 … Returns to Philadelphia. Battles of Lexington and Concord. Elected to Second Continental Congress. Proposes first Articles of Confederation.

1776 … William removed as royal governor, imprisoned in Connecticut. Declaration of Independence. Goes to France with Temple and Benny.

1777 … Settles in Passy, feted throughout Paris.

1778 … Treaties of alliance and commerce with France.

1779 … Salons of Madames Brillon and Helvetius. John Paul Jones’s Bonhomme Richard defeats the Serapis.

1781 … Appointed (with Adams and others) to negotiate, in Paris, peace with Britain.

1785 … Last meeting with son William. Returns to Philadelphia.

1787 … Constitutional Convention. Elected president of Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery.

1790 … Dies on April 17 at age 84.

For a great collection of the writings of Benjamin Franklin, see ‘A Benjamin Franklin Reader’ by Walter Isaacson. Not only was Franklin a self-made man, but he gave great advice about connecting with people and interacting with others both from a business and from a personal point of view.

Tagged
Posted in Leaders and Innovators