Monthly Archives: June 2015

Istanbul’s Prominent Cagaloglu Hammam can Soothed Your Nerves

Istanbul's Prominent Cagaloglu Hammam

The renowned Cagaloglu Hamam is said to have soothed the nerves of everyone from Florence Nightingale to Cameron Diaz. The Hamam was built in 1741 by Sultan Mahmut I; nowadays, a massage at Cagaloglu remains the wonderful antidote to the stress of city life, for locals and visitors alike, conducted by professional masseuse for almost 300 years.

Hamams became an integral part of Ottoman culture for religious reasons. According to the Holy Quran, washing and ablution is not only an significant but also an indispensable part of religious practice. The marble buildings that house the Hamams helped create a social atmosphere. Enjoying the companionship of friends and making business contacts were as significant reasons for the popularity of Hamams as the religious significance.

There are distinct bathing areas for men and women, and you can also choose to cleanse yourself as opposed to being treated by one of the attendants—but most visitors will not want to miss the Complete Oriental Luxury Service. After an self-indulgent hour and a half in the marble hararet (steam room) you will be revitalized and left glowing like a firefly. Even gazing around the hararet is soothing: rays of light cascade down through star-shaped windows in the domed roof as you welter in the steam on the cooling marble benches.

Turkish Hammam Spa Once you have worked up a sweat, a masseur or a masseuse (depending on your sex) leads you to the octagonal marble plinth in the center of the hararet. It is time for a full body exfoliation, cleanse, and shampoo and, for the fantastic finale, a delectably bubbly massage, sometimes calming and tickling, sometimes forceful and pummeling, all in the midst of lovely graceful arches and distinctive columns. By the end, you will feel as flaccid as a rag doll. Take the occasion to nod off back in your private cabin or enjoy a glass of apple tea in the outdoor courtyard before returning to routine.

Hamams were the only places where Ottoman women could socialize in their constrained lives outside the closed doors of their homes. Most of the women dropped by the Hamam in their locality once a month. This ritualistic preparation was necessary as not just a few hours, but habitually they would spend an entire day at the Hamam.

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Posted in Travels and Journeys

How Peak Performers Move Ahead and Pursue their Dreams

How Peak Performers Pursue their Dreams

I’m often asked, “How do I know if I’m a peak performer?” Frequently the people who ask seem afraid that the answer will be “You aren’t. You don’t measure up.” You begin answering the question by examining your current situation, “the horse you’re riding on.” You may have chosen wisely and well, knowing that loving your work and being inspired by its possibilities are critical to a life filled with challenge, rewards, and energy. You may have selected your job on those grounds. Still, amid job stress, internal politics, firefighting, and the craziness of daily life, your mission may be nearly forgotten: “I did love it once—or at least I knew I could love it. Now that sense of being in the right place, working at the heart of things, feels faraway.”

Anyone who feels that way will find it difficult to see his or her direction, values, and opportunities as part of a coherent mission. To paraphrase George Santayana, many of us redouble our efforts when we have lost our direction. The result is not necessarily failure. Several famous and wealthy people have mislaid their original missions. The result is, though, that their redoubled efforts often secure gratification not quite their own, at considerable cost to body and soul.

So they must ask another question: “Is my place to stand, in my current commitment, true to my real passions, or have I traded my passions for security or glory, and settled for gratifications hot quite my own?”

The key is to identify your current situation—candidly, with “ruthless compassion,” and then to act in your own behalf. Peak performers assess the degree to which their abilities, jobs, and work environment coincide to move forward their mission the degree to which their current stand gives them leverage to achieve those ends they feel destined to accomplish.

Many of us know the feeling of being close but not quite there, having the mission in sight but a bit out of focus. We adjust; we move elements around; we struggle, perhaps for years. We fail to see that we are having difficulty not with coping and adaptation but with growth and change. To others our struggle might seem puzzling. Those who know us well may feel that what is best for us is obvious. But, obsessed with the trials of daily life, we ignore the “real stuff” of our place to stand and the “right stuff” in ourselves.

“Will I ever discriminate between what really matters in work and life and what only seems to matter? Will I ever judge wisely and have the courage to act in my own behalf?” For the peak performers, the answer to these questions is yes.

Some of us have yet to find our place to stand. We have not taken our best stand, have not fully engaged our mission. But old missions—real ones don’t die easily. They may recede into the background, but they are still waiting there, ready to move to center stage. Like an unrequited love, a real mission lives on in the mind of its creator, awaiting its resolution: “It just didn’t work out. I got pulled away by different interests and responsibilities. The circumstances changed, and the passions cooled. It just wasn’t practical to go on. Besides, something more reasonable came along.”

How to Promote Peak Performance

Promote Peak Performance

Our reasoned, reasonable loves offer but shadows of the motivation and potential of our real ones. Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye once observed: “Realistic people with practical aims are rarely as realistic or practical in the long run of life, as the dreamers who pursue their dreams.” Peak performers know this distinction.

With work, as with people, there must be 50 ways to leave your lover. But if the love is real, its feelings bone-deep and wholehearted, the 50 ways serve only as rationalizations and excuses. Many of us have major responsibilities: equity positions, family obligations, our friends’ expectations, our familiarity with a place and a job. Instead of allowing themselves to be trapped in such situations, peak performers accept the risks and temporary discomforts of challenging themselves to better the situations. In spite of their fears and self-doubts, they exercise their courage and face the difficulties.

As they reflect on the journey, a memory, an award, or a picture may trigger associations with a face, a name, or an old life plan. With missions loved, as with people, come a torrent of images. There is a certain pathos to such reflection, taking its origin as William Wordsworth said poetry does: “from emotion recollected in tranquility” This emotion, not sadness, reconnects them with the source of their motivation. Peak performers move ahead and pursue their dreams.

Others might say: “I always wanted to be .. .I wonder what would have happened if .. .I never knew why it didn’t work. .. If only … If only … If only … ” Such normal feelings trigger further reflection for the peak performer: “What did I learn from that situation? How can I recapture those old dreams, perhaps in an altered or updated form? How can I act in my own behalf? And how can I ensure against being like those people who are unable or unwilling to learn from such reflection, who continue in their rut, riding the horse long after the race is over and the beast has died?”

As a peak performer, you recognize yourself as a person who was born not as a high achiever but as a life-long learner. With the capacity to grow, change, and reach for the highest possibilities of human nature, you regard yourself as a person in process. Not perfect, but a person who keeps asking: What more can I be? What else can I achieve that will benefit me and my company? That will contribute to my family, community, and society? And then answering for yourself.

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Posted in Education and Career Leaders and Innovators Mental Models and Psychology

How to Recapture Trust and Have People Follow You

How to Recapture Trust and Have People Follow You

Somewhere, in some company, a CEO does something to violate the trust of employees, stockholders, and the public daily. As a result, now seven in 10 people distrust CEOs. Eight in 10 are convinced these top executives would take “improper actions to help themselves at the expense of their companies. In recent months, the percentage of people who perceive big business as a threat to the nation’s future has doubled to 38 percent.

The lack of trust originates from leaders’ disregard for personal integrity. People want leaders they can trust. They expect honest answers to questions.

So, what must CEOs do? Become a Trust Me leader, focusing on the welfare and success of the people around them rather than on their own. Ironically, this ensures their own welfare and success more surely. They hold firm under pressure and maintain their focus. Above all, they possess integrity.

Integrity is intrinsic to a Trust Me leader and is so compelling that people naturally want to follow leaders who have it. People are most willing to follow someone they can trust. They must be sure foe person will be straight with them, follow through faithfully on their stated intentions, and remain true to their expressed values.

What is integrity? What does it look like? What can a leader do to become a Trust Me leader? The root word for “integrity” is integer—a whole, indivisible number. Leaders who focus on integrity choose to live a whole life, neither divided nor fractured through compromise, hypocrisy, instability or dishonesty. They won’t do it perfectly, but in spite of expected human frailties, a Trust Me leader strives to be whole and undivided. He or she is “the real deal.”

In “The Soul of the Firm”, William Pollard wrote, “We must be people of integrity seeking to do what is right, even when no one is looking.”

Barriers to Integrity

Becoming a whole leader of integrity is easier contemplated than achieved. Before exploring the attitudes and actions that build a life of integrity, let’s examine some stumbling blocks not easily seen or surmounted on the journey.

When leaders are paralyzed by fear, they tend to lose perspective and often make decisions or act in ways that do not support integrity. Fear also causes them to lose vision .and hope. They vacillate and lose heart. They simply give up and a life of integrity sinks below their radar. They expect, or others expect, them to deliver results, but they are bound by such fear that they lose their sense of direction and their heart.

The compromise of values is a sad and gradual corrosion of golden intentions, happening over time—a little lie or indiscretion leads to another until, almost imperceptibly, integrity and character begin to crumble. Finally, their integrity is completely ruined.

The root word for hypocrite is lzupokrisis. It was used in classical Greek as part of theatrical acting and evolved to mean acting a part. In this sense, the great actors are hypocrites-they assume a role and act out a part. Their acting roles are separate from their real lives.

In leadership, integrity is about actions matching beliefs. Do leaders “act” the part or are they genuine? Does their walk match their talk? Hypocrisy, like fear and compromise, can destroy integrity and render leaders trustless.

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Posted in Management and Leadership

Why Leaders Fail

Recently Ralph Larsen, CEO of Johnson & Johnson, stated, “Leadership is the biggest single constraint to growth at Johnson & Johnson, and it is the most critical business issue we face.” This statement may be endorsed by many other CEOs, yet solutions to the “biggest single constraint” seem to be in short supply.

For example, consider these findings:

  • Over a 10-year period, at least 50 percent of executives fail in their jobs.
  • In hospital leadership, 60 percent of managers are considered incompetent.
  • In one major aerospace company, 50 percent of the leaders failed.
  • No matter where or when the survey is conducted or what occupation is studied, 60 to 70 percent of employees state that the most stressful aspect of their jobs is their immediate boss.

Why the Dismal Results?

What accounts for these dismal results? Here are four findings:

  1. We assume that people with strong educational background, technical skills, or individual peak performers are our best candidates for leaders. How are leaders typically chosen? Usually those individuals chosen for leadership positions either have an impressive degree (like a Harvard MBA), strong technical skills (like a topnotch engineer), or they are individual peak performers (like super salesmen). But there is no evidence whatsoever that people with these backgrounds make effective leaders.
  2. We allow an outside search firm or an inside search committee to select our leaders. The track record of individuals thus selected are no better.
  3. We aren’t clear on what constitutes a successful leader in our organization. Some clarity is emerging, like the need for conceptual and cognitive abilities, emotional intelligence, self-awareness, and long-range thinking capabilities,
  4. We rely on our own implicit beliefs or “theories” and preconceived notions about what a successful leader “looks like.” For example, we may think that a leader must be tall, intuitive, agreeable, conscientious, extrovertive, or visionary. But such characteristics as physical height, agreeableness, and having a vision are our selection criteria not qualities that predict success.

What Can Be Done to Improve Leadership Deficiencies

Here are five ways we can improve the odds of success in leadership:

  1. Make the selection criteria and process more rigorous. Rely more on psychological testing and assessment conducted by highly experienced professionals.
  2. Concentrate on “action learning” developmental activities. Concentrate much more on activities that combine learning about group dynamics and leadership with tasks to get real work done (work, like creative thinking and planning, that the company has needed done for some time, but for one reason or another has not been done).
  3. Use multirater feedback processes. These processes enhance the leader’s selfawareness, which correlates with high performance. If the practices on which one receives feedback are related to organizational goals (like culture change), then there can be a win-win payoff.
  4. Coach the leader. Such coaching should be conducted by highly experienced professionals. For multi-rater feedback to pay off for both the individual and the organization, coaching is necessary.
  5. Treat leadership assessment and development as a critical business issue. Ralph Larsen stated, “leadership is the biggest single constraint to growth” and “leadership is our most critical business issue.” I dare say the same could be said of your organization.
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Posted in Management and Leadership

The Sacrificial Temple of Heaven: A Magnificent Ming Dynasty Tower

The Magnificent Sacrificial Temple of Heaven

Stand before the buildings that comprise the Temple of Heaven complex and you will see the personification of humankind’s desire for order amidst worldly chaos. The flawless manifestation of this is the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests. An entirely symmetrical structure, it consists of three upturned, dark blue-glazed saucers, separated by bands of ornate, pale blue-and-gold carving, and topped by a gilded sphere. Its architecture is steeped with meticulous allegory. Within, three rings of columns prop the blue-tiled roof, a personification of the sky. Four columns at the center signify the four seasons, twelve in the next ring characterize the twelve months of the year and twelve outer columns the twelve hours of the daytime. The entire building is also, by virtue of its circular shape, a symbol of heaven itself.

It was to this building that the emperor of China, himself known as the Son of Heaven, would come in solemn procession on the eve of the winter solstice to pray for healthy crops and to meditate in the adjoining Imperial Vault of Heaven, a scaled-down version of the Hall of Prayer. The next day he would return, to perform ritual sacrifices and prayers on the Circular Mound Altar, a three-tiered marble terrace in the same complex.

Imperial Vault of Heaven's Echo Wall Symbolism plays a crucial part in the design: the number of flagstones in every circle of the Mound’s three-tiered terrace is a multiple of nine—the imperial number. The harvest ceremony had to be performed without a hitch. According to tradition, the slightest mistake on the emperor’s part was a bad omen for the nation’s wellbeing over the coming year.

Contemplating the symbolism and symmetry captured in these buildings, you glimpse a respect for form and tradition that was not mere superstition, but active worship. At the same time, the sounds of secular China provide the modern-day visitor with an earthly counterpoint: laughing teenagers experimenting with the Imperial Vault of Heaven’s echo wall, while the voices of their elders waft over from morning choral practice in the surrounding park, singing old favorites from the Communist songbooks.

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Posted in Travels and Journeys

Four Traits of a Virtuous Company

In an article in the 23-Feb-2015 issue of Bloomberg Businessweek magazine, Susan Berfield discusses the dilemmas of a private business founded on the principals of “doing good” going public. Berfield contends that such companies must now respond to every demand of the public company relative to its mission. The article features The Container Store, founded in 1978 in Dallas, TX.

'Conscious Capitalism' by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia (ISBN 1625271751) Here are four traits of a virtuous company, as defined by Conscious Capitalism, Inc., an organization founded by Whole Foods Market founder John Mackey:

  1. A purpose other than making money, though the company should make money too.
  2. A focus on employees, customers, suppliers, the community and its ecosystem—and shareholders.
  3. A leader who seeks to bring out the best in people.
  4. A culture that fosters love and trust.

Berfield contends that companies that abide by the tenets of conscious capitalism have generated handsome returns for investors. Examples include

Starbucks, Chipotle, Whole Foods, Costco, Panera, and Southwest Airlines.

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Posted in Business and Strategy

Akira Kurosawa’s Ikiru: One of the Most Stirring Life-Affirming Films

When Tokyo bureaucrat Kanji Watanabe (Takashi Shimura) learns he’s dying of stomach cancer he suddenly realizes he’s wasted his entire life. For 30 years, he’s worked as an isolated, inward city clerk in a stuffy office stamping paper after paper. Depressed that he’s never really lived, he tries to drink his sores away until he meets an upbeat young woman who encourages him to make a difference. With a new-found purpose, Watanabe becomes a passionate activist and his touching journey in Ikiru (“To Live”) continues to inspire audiences to truly live well over half a century later.

In what could be the greatest closing shots in the cinema, in the last few moments in Watanabe’s life, he sits on the swing at the children’s park is built on a wasteland. As the snow falls over the playground, Watanabe is seen fondly observing the playground, at peace with himself and the world.

Takashi Shimura in Akira Kurosawa's Ikiru

With a compelling, radical narrative structure, Kurosawa depicts Watanabe’s last months and how his final decisions affect those left behind. Ikiru is one of the Japanese master’s darkest, yet most life-affirming works.

Famed movie critic Roger Ebert included Ikiru in his list of Great Movies and wrote, in his review of the film,

We who have followed Watanabe on his last journey are now brought forcibly back to the land of the living, to cynicism and gossip. Mentally, we urge the survivors to think differently, to arrive at our conclusions. And that is how Kurosawa achieves his final effect: He makes us not witnesses to Watanabe’s decision, but evangelists for it. I think this is one of the few movies that might actually be able to inspire someone to lead their life a little differently.

Over the years I have seen “Ikiru” every five years or so, and each time it has moved me, and made me think. And the older I get, the less Watanabe seems like a pathetic old man, and the more he seems like every one of us.

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Posted in Music, Arts, and Culture

Ex-Google’s Marissa Mayer on Nine Principles of Innovation

The last decade’s most remarkable business story has been the rise of Google as a dominant force in computing. Whenever a company becomes wildly successful in a brief span of time, it naturally becomes an object of fascination for corporate executives and even the general public.

Marissa Mayer on CreativityMarissa Mayer, then Vice-President for Search Products and User Experience at Google, and presently CEO of Yahoo, shared nine guiding principles of innovation that have helped her succeed with Fast Company:

  1. Innovation, Not Instant Perfection. “The Googly thing is to launch it early on Google Labs and then iterate, learning what the market wants—and making it great. … The beauty of experimenting in this way is that you never get too far from what the market wants. The market pulls you back.
  2. Ideas Come from Everywhere. “We have this great internal list where people post new ideas and everyone can go on and see them.
  3. A License to Pursue Your Dreams. “We let engineers spend 20% of their time working on whatever they want, and we trust that they’ll build interesting things.
  4. Morph Projects Don’t Kill Them. “Any project that is good enough to make it to Labs probably has a kernel of something interesting in there somewhere, even if the market doesn’t respond to it. It’s our job to take the product and morph it into something that the market needs.
  5. Share as Much Information as You Can. “People are blown away by the information you can get on MOMA, our intranet. Because there is so much information shared across the company, employees have insight into what’s happening with the business and what’s important. … It allows us to share what we know across the whole company, and it reduces duplication.
  6. Users, Users, Users. “In a truly virtual business, if you’re successful, you’ll be working at something that’s so necessary people will pay for it in subscription form. Or you’ll have so many users that advertisers will pay to sponsor the site.
  7. 'The Google Guys: Inside the Brilliant Minds of Google Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin' by Richard L. Brandt (ISBN 1591844126) Data is Apolitical. “Run a test on 1% of the audience and whichever design does best against the user-happiness metrics over a two-week period is the one we launch. … We probably have somewhere between 50 and 100 experiments running on live traffic, everything from the default number of results to underlined links to how big an arrow should be. We’re trying all those different things.
  8. Creativity Loves Constraints. “People think of creativity as this sort of unbridled thing, but engineers thrive on constraints. They love to think their way out of that little box: ‘We know you said it was impossible, but we’re going to do this, this, and that to get us there.’
  9. You’re Brilliant? We’re Hiring. “There is this amazing element to the culture of wanting to work on big problems that matter, wanting to do great things for the world, believing that we can build a successful business without compromising our standards and values.

How Google Fuels its Innovation Factory

  1. Innovation, not instant perfection.: Google launches early and often in small beta tests, before releasing new features widely
  2. Ideas come from everywhere.: Google expects everyone to innovate, even the finance team
  3. A license to pursue dreams.: Employees get a “free” day a week. Half of new launches come from this “20% time
  4. Don’t kill projects—morph them.: There’s always a kernel of something good that can be salvaged
  5. Share everything you can.: Every idea, every project, every deadline—it’s all accessible to everyone on the intranet
  6. Worry about usage and users, not money.: Provide something simple to use and easy to love. The money will follow.
  7. Don’t politic, use data.: Mayer discourages the use of “I like” in meetings, pushing staffers to use metrics
  8. Creativity loves restraint.: Give people a vision, rules about how to get there, and deadlines
  9. You’re brilliant, we’re hiring.: Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin approve hires. They favor intelligence over experience
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Posted in Airlines and Airliners

To Make an Exciting Speech, First Make an Emotional Connection

Make Your Speeches Memorable

Make Your Speeches Memorable

Your speeches will hit the mark when you observe five tips:

  1. To grab audience attention, start with a bang, not a limp. The first (and last) 30 seconds have the most impact. Save any greetings and gratitude (“Thanks, it’s nice to be here”) until you grab the audience with a powerful opening. And don’t end with a whimper. Rather than close with questions, instead say, “Before I close, are there any questions?” Answer them. Then close.
  2. Get the inside scoop. You can personalize and add excitement and color to your speeches by getting invaluable inside stories. Ask others for input that can provide color and energy. Ask clients, colleagues, and family members what insights and stories with characters, dialogue, and dramatic lessons you can share.
  3. Try inside-out speaking. Don’t write speeches to be read. Instead, from inside yourself pull out your ideas, stories, experiences, and examples. You’ll end up with a loose script that can then be edited and tightened. Organize, wordsmith, and deliver your comments by conversing with the audience. If your speech sounds conversational, it is far more appealing and much easier to deliver without reading it. Emotional contact is impossible without eye contact.
  4. Provide five magic moments. Great speeches, like classic movies, have five magic moments for each viewer, though not always the same five. So, be sure your presentation has five great moments—dramatic, humorous, profound, or poignant—that the audience can relive.
  5. Avoid borrowed stories. I urge you to create vivid, personal stories. Once I sat in an audience of 18,000 people, listening to Barbara Bush tell a great story she had read in “Chicken Soup for the Soul”—my own story! I was disappointed that she did not share a few her own incredible life experiences. That’s how your audience feels when you repeat things you’ve read.

To Make an Exciting Speech, First Make an Emotional Connection

How Will They Remember Your Speech?

Your message, no matter how important, will not be remembered if you don’t add structure and emotional connection. Your structure. Can you write the premise or purpose of your talk in one sentence? If not, your thinking isn’t organized enough. Use statements that make your audience ask: “How?” or “Why?” For example, in a talk on “Selling Yourself,” I say, “You need to sell yourself and your ideas to your boss.” My audience is asking, “Why?” and “How?” Your answers become your “Points of Wisdom.” illustrate each Point with stories, examples, suggestions, practical advice, and recommendations. Allow about 10 minutes for each Point. Frame your premise and Points with an attention getting opening and a memorable closing. Send people out energized, inspired, and fulfilled, or challenged and ready to act.

Your Emotional Connection

How you deliver your material has a lot to do with the enjoyment of your audience. If they have a good time, they are more likely to like you and your ideas. If your audience doesn’t like you or is unsure of you, how can you win them?

  • Make eye contact. For a small group, look at individuals for five seconds. For large groups, divide your attention between those up front and those in back.
  • Tell memorable stories. Few can resist a good story—well told. People remember stories and images your words create.
  • Increase your I-You ratio. An “I” sentence would be: “When I was growing up, my father gave me this advice.” An “I-You” sentence would be: “I don’t know what advice your father gave you growing up, but mine always said … “

To make your message memorable, connect with your audience.

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Posted in Education and Career

Monument Valley: The Breathtaking Emblem of the American West

The Mitten Shadow, Monument Valley, Utah

This mesmerizing corner of the Arizona desert, straddling the borders of Arizona and Utah, will be familiar to anyone who has ever watched a cowboy film, seen the surreal fantasies of painter Max Ernst, or read Paul Auster’s 1989 novel “Moon Palace”. Reminiscent of neon motel signs and roadside diners, we feel we have been there even before we see it for the first time. In the evocative Goulding’s Lodge Hotel—where director John Ford stayed—this is particularly so. Turn on the television and watch a film— “John Ford’s Stagecoach” (1939), perhaps, or “The Searchers” (1956) from the hotel’s extensive collection of Westerns. Let your eyes skip between the valley on the screen and the sun setting on the real thing beyond.

Monument Valley is part of the Colorado plateau. The landscape attains its deep sunset reds from the iron oxide in the Cutler Red siltstone, whereas manganese oxide shows up as blues, greens, and grays in the strata. The Grand Canyon is nearby and the Navajo Nation spreads around.

Goulding's Lodge Hotel, Monument Valley Monument Valley manifests itself by mammoth rock features, including mesas, cliffs, and buttes. The buttes are stratified, their distinctive rocks define the eons; the steeples and lean towers look delicate and weather-worn. The most renowned landscape of Monument Valley is the Mittens, a pair of buttes. The Mitten Shadow happens when the shadow of the West Mitten Butte is shed upon the East Mitten Butte at sunset. This unique event occurs just twice a year in September and March. It is worth taking time (perhaps in winter, after the main tourist season) to study the distinct forms: the much-filmed twin Mittens, the lofty Totem Pole, the arch of the Ear of the Wind.

Monument Valley is a natural, and spiritual, enticement for any experience of the American West. The Monument Valley is part of the 480-mile long Trail of the Ancients, a double-loop route spanning the Four Corners. This region has been inhabited since ancient times by the Native American tribes and passes through striking sculptural landscapes of bare, eroded rock. The Trail of the Ancients begins at Cortez and Mesa Verde National Park, and includes the Anasazi Heritage Center.

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Posted in Travels and Journeys